Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review

Keywords: Armed conflicts, education, multivocal review, qualitative synthesis study

Abstract

This paper investigates the short and long-term pernicious impact of armed conflicts on education and educational agents (students, teachers and students’ parents), using a multivocal review by means of the integration and qualitative analysis of 60 research reports (voices) found in two databases: Web of Science and PROQUEST in the period between 1995 –date of the first founding paper- until 2014. Through the analysis of source data (voices) and taking the “multivocal review” as a method, the voices have been combined in nine categories, namely: a) Refusal and impediments to a return to education; b) Educational infrastructure damaged or destroyed; c) Cuts in or withdrawal of spending on education; d) Loss of the educational and protective functions of the family; e) Loss of the academic community; f) Non-qualified teaching staff; g) Drastic loss of skills; h) Abandoning school (population movements, destruction of networks and social environment); i) Behavioural problems: traumas, pedagogical roles and self-victimization. These categories have highlighted the serious consequences arising from conflicts, infringing as they do the most basic human rights and in particular the right to a sound education during childhood.

Author Biographies

Luisa Cervantes-Duarte, Universidad de Granada
Diploma in Early Childhood Education Teaching. Licenced in Psychopedagogy. Masters in Psychopedagogical Intervention, from the University of Granada. Her interest areas are qualitative methodologies and resolution of conflicts.
Antonio Fernández-Cano, Universidad de Granada
Doctor in Philosophy and Educational Sciences. Professor-chairman at the University of Granada. His interest areas are the methodologies for research and evaluation in Education, mixed methods and the impact of educational research.

References

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the multivocal review.

Ager, A., Akesson, B., Stark, L., Flouri, E., Okot, B., McCollister, F., & Boothby, N. (2011). The impact of the school-based psychosocial structured activities (PSSA) program on conflict-affected children in northern Uganda. Journal of the Child Psychology, and Psychiatry, and allied disciplines, 52(11), 1124-1133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02407.x

*Al-Eissa, Y. A. (1995). The impact of the gulf armed conflict on the health and behaviour of Kuwaiti children. Social, Science & Medicine, 41(7), 1033-1037. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)00414-O

*Albertyn, R., Bickler, S. W., Vas As, A. B., Millar, A. J. W., & Rode, H. (2003). The effects of war on children in Africa. Pediatric Surgery International, 19(4), 227-232. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-002-0926-9

*Alborz, A. (2013). Environmental characteristics and prevalence of birth defects among children in post-war Iraq: implications for policies on rebuilding the Iraqi education system. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 29(1), 26-44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699.2013.765197

Amundsen, C., & Wilson, M. (2012). Are we asking the right questions? A conceptual review of the educational development literature in higher education. Review of Educational Research, 82(1), 90-126. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654312438409

*Attanayake, V., McKay, R., Joffres, M., Singh, S., Burkle F. Jr., & Mills E. (January-March, 2009). Prevalence of mental disorders among children exposed to war: a systematic review of 7,920 children. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 25(1), 4-19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623690802568913

*Bell, V., Méndez, F., Martínez, C., Palma, P. P., & Bosch, M. (2012). Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of cibilants living in active conflict zones. Conflict and Health, 6(1), 1-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-6-10

Bernardo, M. A., & Baranovich, D.-L. (2014). Higher education in the heart of conflict: The pivotal role of student affairs. International Journal of Educational Development, 35, 78-85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.08.007

*Betancourt, T. S., McBain, R., Newnham, E. A., & Brennan, R. T. (March-April, 2013). Trajectories of internalizing problems in war-affected Sierra Leone youth: Examining conflict and post conflict factors. Child Development, 84(2), 455-470. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01861.xd

*Betancourt, T. S., Meyers-Ohki, S. E., Charrow, A. P., & Tol, W. A. (March-April, 2013). Interventions for children affected by war: An ecological perspective on psychosocial support and mental health care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 21(2), 70-91. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0b013e318283bf8f

*Bragin, M. (2012). So that our dreams will not escape us: Learning to think together in time of war. Psychoanalytic Inquiry: A Topical Journal for Mental Health Professionals, 32(2) 115-135. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07351690.2011.592740

Bragin, M., & Opiro, W. G. (2012). Making the right to education a reality for war affected children: The Northern Uganda experience. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 9(2), 158-177. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aps.1309

*Bundervoet, T., Verwimp, P., & Akresh, R. (2009). Health and civil war in rural Burundi. The Journal of Human Resources, 44(2), 536-563. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/jhr.44.2.536

*Cáceres, D. C., Izquierdo, V. F., Mantilla, L., Jara, J., & Velandia, M. (2002). Perfil epidemiológico de la población desplazada por el conflict armado interno del país en un barrio de Cartgagena, Colombia 2000 [Epidemiological profile of the population displaced by the internal armed conflict of the country in a neighborhood of Cartagena, Colombia, 2000]. Biomédica, 22(Supl. 2), 425-444. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v22iSupp2.1191

*Carlton-Ford, S., & Boop, D. (2010). Civil war and life chances. A multinational study. International Sociology, 25(1), 75-97. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580909346707

*Carlton-Ford, S., Ender, M. G., & Tabatabai, A. (2008). Iraqi adolescents: Self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 53-75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.04.006

*Carmona, J. A., Moreno, F., & Tobón, J. F. (2012). Child soldiers in Colombia: Five views [Niños soldados en Colombia: Cinco visions]. Universitas Psychologica, 11(3)755-768. Recuperado de http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=64724634006

Cervantes, L. , & Fernández-Cano, A. (2014). Consecuencias de los conflictos armados en la educación y sus agentes: Una revisión multivocal (Tesis de Maestría) [Consequences of armed conflict in education and their agents: A multivocal reviews]. Universidad de Granada. Recuperado de http://digibug.ugr.es/bitstream/10481/32662/1/TFM_CervantesDuarte.pdf

*Chase, R., Doney, A., Sivayogan, S., Ariyaratne, V., Satkunanatagam, P., & Swaminathan, A. (October-December, 1999). Mental health initiative as peace initiatives in Sri Lankan schoolchildren affected by armed conflict. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 15(4), 379-390. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699908409479

*Corbin, J. N. (2008). Returning home: Resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda. Disasters, 32(2), 316-335. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2008.01042.x

*Crombach, A., Weierstall, R., Hecker, T., Schalinski, I., & Elbert, T. (2013). Social status and the desire to resort to violence: Using the example of Uganda’s former child soldiers. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(5), 559-575. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.785458

*De Castro, E., Camacho, A. Z. V., Balanon, F. A. G., & Galang, M. T. (2012). Children caught in conflicts: Assessing the psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children in the Philippines. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 9(3), 249-265. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aps.1323

*Denov, M. (2010). Coping with the trauma of war: Former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. International Social Work, 53(6), 791-806. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872809358400

*Denov, M. (2012). Child soldiers and iconography: Portrayals and (mis) representations. Children & Society, 26(4), 280-292. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2010.00347.x

*Derluyn, I., Broekaert, E., Schuylen, G., & De Temmerman, E. (2004). Post-traumatic stress in former Ugandan child soldiers. The Lancet, 363(9412), 861-863. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16212-0

*Di Maio, M., & Nandi, T. K. (2013). The effect of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict on child labor and school attendance in the West Bank. Journal of Development Economics, 100(1), 107-116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.08.007

*Dickinson-Gómez, J. (2002). Growing up in guerrilla camps: The long-term impact of being a child soldiers in El Salvador´s civil war. Ethos, 30(4), 327-356. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/eth.2002.30.4.327

*Dimitry, L. (2012). A systematic review on the mental health of children and adolescents in areas of armed conflict in the Middle East. Child: care, health and development, 38(2), 153-169. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01246.x

*Dyregrov, A., Gjestad, R., & Raundalen, M. (2002). Children exposed to warfare: A longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(1), 59-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014335312219

*Edwards, M. J., Lustik, M., Eichelberger, M. R., Elster, E., Azarow, K., & Coppola, C. (2012). Blast injury in children: An analysis from Afghanistan and Iraq, 2002-2010. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 73(5), 1278-1283. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e318270d3ee

*Elbert, T., Schauer, M., Schauer, E., Huschka, B., Hirth, M., & Neuner, F. (2009). Trauma related impairment in children - A survey in Sri Lankan provinces affected by armed conflict. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(4), 238-246. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.02.008

*Feldman, R., & Vengrober, A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and young children exposed to war-related trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(7), 645-658. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.03.001

Fernández-Cano, A., Torralbo, M., Vallejo, M., & Fernández-Guerrero, I. M. (2012). A narrative review of Greek myths as interpretative metaphors in educational research and evaluation. Educational Research Review, 7(3), 238–248. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.07.001

*Flink, I. J., Restrepo, M. H., Blanco, D. P., Ortegón, M. M., Enríquez, C., L., Beirens, T. M., & Raat, H. (2013). Mental health of internally displaced preschool children: A cross-sectional study conducted in Bogotá, Colombia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(6), 917-926. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0611-9

Freire, P. (2007). Pedagogía del oprimido [Pedagogy of the oppressed] (19a ed.). Madrid: Siglo XXI.

*Gates, S., Hegre, H., Mokleiv H., & Strand, H. (2012). Development consequences of armed conflict. World Development, 40(9), 1713-1722. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.04.031

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68-77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120-137. Recuperado de http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_2012_completo.pdf

*Guy, K. M. (2009). Child soldiers as zones of violence in The Democratic Republic of Congo: Three cases on medico-legal evidence of torture. Torture, 19(2), 137-144.

*Harel-Fisch, Y., Radwan, Q., Walsh, S. D., Laufer, A., Amitai, G., Fogel-Grinvald, H., & Abdeenet, Z. (2010). Psychosocial outcomes related to subjective threat from armed conflict events (STACE): Findings from the Israeli-Palestinian cross-cultural HBSC study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(9), 623-638. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.12.007

*Hernández, P., & Romero, A. (2003). Adolescent girls in Colombia’s guerrilla: An exploration into gender and trauma dynamics. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 26(1), 21-38. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J005v26n01_03

*Høiskar, A. H. (2001). Underage and under fire: An enquiry into the use of child soldiers 1994-8. Childhood, 8(3), 340-360. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0907568201008003003

*Honwana, A. (2009). Children in war: Reintegrating child soldiers. IDS Bulletin, vol. 40(1), 63-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2009.00010.x

Jiménez-Caballero, C. (2009). Between rationality and intuition: A social psychology approach to ex-combatant children in Colombia. IDS Bulletin, 40(3), 58-64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2009.00039.x

*Jordans, M. J., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., Kohrt, B. A., Luitel, N. P., Macy, R. D., & De Jong, J. T. (2010). Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and allie disciplines, 51(7), 818-826. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02209.x

*Jordans, M. J., Tol, W. A., Susanty, D., Ntamatumba, P., Luitel, N. P., Komproe, I. H., & De Jong, J. T. (2013). Implementation of a mental health care packaged for children in areas of armed conflict: A case study from Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan. PLOS Medicine, 10(1), 1-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001371

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020-1027. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

*Kiros, G. E., & Hogan, D. P. (2001). War, famine and excess child mortality in Africa: The role of parental education. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(3), 447-455. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/30.3.447

*Kohrt, B. A., Jordans, M. J., Tol, W. A., Speckman, R. A., Maharjan, S. M., Worthman, C. M., & Komproe, I. H. (2008). Comparison of mental health between former child soldiers and children never conscripted by armed groups in Nepal. JAMA, 300(6), 691-702. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.6.691

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

*Manuchehr, T. N. (2011). Education right of children during war and armed conflicts. Procedia. Social and Behavioral Science, 15, 302-305. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.090

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12-27. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Mendenhal, M. A. (2014). Education sustainability in the relief-development transition: Challenges for international organizations working in countries affected by conflict. International Journal of Educational Development, 35, 67–77. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.08.006

*Miller, T., El-Masri, M., Allodi, F., & Qouta, S. (1999). Emotional and behavioural problems and trauma exposure of school-age Palestinian children in Gaza: Some preliminary findings. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 15(4), 368-378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699908409478

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229-235. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Naciones Unidas. Asamblea General (26 de agosto de 1996). A/51/306. Promoción y proteccion de los derechos del niño. Repercusiones de los conflictos armados sobre los niños. Informe de la experta del Secretariado General, Sra. Graca Machel, presentado en virtud de la resolución 48/157 [Promotion and protection of the right of children. Repercusion of the armed conflict in children. Report prepared by General Assembly expert Ms. Graça Machel, and presented in virtue of the 48/157 resolution]. Retrieved from http://www.bienestaryproteccioninfantil.es/imagenes/tablaContenidos03SubSec/opendocpdf.pdf

Naciones Unidas. Asamblea General. (2013). Los niños y los conflictos armados (Informe del Secretario General A/67/845-S/2013/245 [Children and armed conflict. Report of the General Secretary a/67/845-S/2013/245]. Retrieved from http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1331170.pdf

*Nelson, B. D., Collins, L., VanRooyen, M. J., Joyce, N., Mukwege, D., & Bartels, S. (2011). Impact of sexual violence on children in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 27(4), 211-225. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699.2011.645148

*Noguera, R. T. (2013). The narratives of children in armed conflict: An inference to spirituality and implication to psychological intervention. International Journal of Childre’s Spirituality, 18(2), 162-172. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1364436X.2012.755954

Ogawa, R. T., & Malen, B. (1991). Towards rigor in reviews of multivocal literatures: Applying the exploratory case study method. Review of Educacional Research, 61(3), 265-286. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543061003265

*O’Hare, B. A. M., & Southall, D. P. (2007). First do no harm: The impact of recent armed conflict on maternal and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(12), 564-570. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.100.12.564

OTR/PRESS (13 de Noviembre de 2008). Supuestos talibanes atacan con ácido a un grupo de niñas por ir al colegio [Alleged Taliban attack with acid at a group of girls in their way at school]. El Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.elconfidencial.com/cache/2008/11/13/mundo_32_supuestos_talibanes_atacan_acido_grupo_ninas_colegio.html

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251-269. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

*Peltonen, K., Qouta, S., El Sarraj, E., & Punamäki, R-L. (2012). Effectiveness of school-based intervention in enhancing mental health and social functioning among war-affected children. Traumatology, 18(4), 37-46. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534765612437380

*Poirier, T. (2012). The effects of armed conflict on schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(2), 341-351. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.06.001

*Prior, M., Virasinghe, S., & Smart, D. (2005). Behavioural problems in Sri Lanka schoolchildren: Associations with socio-economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(8), 654-662. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0942-x

*Rashid, J. (2012). An analysis of self-accounts of children-in-conflict-with-law in Kashmir concerning the impact of the torture and detention on their live. International Social Work, 55(5) 629-644. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812447640

Ressler, E. M., Tortorici, J. M., & Marcelino, A. (1993). Children in war: A guide to the provision of services. A study for UNICEF. Toledo, OH: Unicef. Retrieved from http://repository.forcedmigration.org/show_metadata.jsp?pid=fmo:5191

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59-62. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

*Rodríguez, C., & Sánchez, F. (2012). Armed conflict exposure, human capital investments and child labor: Evidence from Colombia. Defence and Peace Economics, 23(2), 161-184. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2011.597239

Rojas, E. (2011) La ilusión de vivir. Instrucciones para navegar hacia la felicidad [The eagerness of live. Instructions for sailing to hapiness]. Barcelona: Planeta.

*Shakya, A. (2011). Experiences of children in armed conflict in Nepal. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(4), 557-563. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.08.018

*Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186-200. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.05.002

*Southall, D. (2011). Armed conflict women and girls who are pregnant, infants and children; A neglected public health Challenge. What can health professionals do? Early Human Development, 87(11), 735-742. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.08.020

*Spellings, C. R. (2008). Scratching the surface: A comparison of girl soldiers from three Geographic regions of the World. International Education, 38(1), 21-39.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67-79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). (2013). Yearbook, 2013: Armaments, disarmaments and international security. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2013

*Tatar, M., & Horenczyk, G. (2003). Dilemmas and strategies in the counselling of Jewish and Palestinian Arab children in Israeli school. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 31(4), 375-391. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880310001609268

*Thapa, S. B., & Hauff, E. (2012). Perceived needs, self-reported health and disability among displaced persons during an armed conflict in Nepal. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(4), 589-595. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-011-0359-7

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). (2005). Mental health interventions for refugee children in resettlement. White Paper II. Chicago, IL: Heartland Health Outreach. Retrieved from http://www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/promising_practices/MH_Interventions_for_Refugee_Children.pdf

*Tol, W. A., Komproe, I. H., Jordans, M. J., Vallipuram, A., Sipsma, H., Sivayokan, S., Macy, R. D., & De Jong, J. T. (2012). Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: A cluster randomized trial. World Psychiatry, 11(2) 114-122. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wpsyc.2012.05.008

*Tol, W. A., Song, S., & Jordans, M. J. (2013). Annual research review: Resilience and mental health in children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict - a systematic review of findings in low - and middle -income countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and allied disciplines, 54(4), 445-460. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12053

Torres, R. M. (2013). Six ‘Education for All’ goals. Retrieved from http://otra-educacion.blogspot.com.es/2013/01/six-education-for-all-goals-seis-metas.html

Unesco. (2007). La educación victima de la violencia armada [Armed violence victim´s education]. París: Autor. Recuperado de http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001505/150548s.pdf

Unesco. (2010). Education under attack. Paris: Autor. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001868/186809e.pdf

Unesco. (2011). Una crisis encubierta: Conflictos armados y educación. Informe de seguimiento de la EPT en el mundo. [Covertly crisis: armed conflicto and education. EFA Monitoring report in the world]. Paris: Autor Retrieved from http://www.cme-espana.org/sites/default/files/informeept_2011.pdf

Unesco (2014). Progress in getting all children to school stalls but some countries show the way forward. Policy paper 14. Fact sheet 18. France: Author. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002281/228184E.pdf

Unesco. (2015). La educación para todos, 2000-2015. Logros y desafíos. Infome de seguimiento de la EPT en el mundo 2015. [Education for all, 2000-2015. Achievements and challenge. EFA Monitoring report in the world in 2015] Paris: Autor. Recuperado de http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232435s.pdf

Unesco, Instituto for Statistics y Unicef (2015). Fixing the broken promise of education for all. Findings from the global initiative on out-of-school children. Montreal: UIS. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/education/files/allinschool.org_wp-content_uploads_2015_01_Fixing-the-Broken-Promise-of-Education-For-All-full-report.pdf

Unicef (2014). El estado mundial de la infancia en 2014 en cifras. Todos los niños y niñas cuentan. [The state of the world’s children 2014 in numbers. Every child counts]. New York: Autor. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.es/sites/www.unicef.es/files/emi_2014_0.pdf

Unicef . (2015). Education under fire. How conflict in the Middle East is depriving children of their schooling. Jordan: Autor. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/mena/Education_Under_Fire.pdf

*Vindevogel, S., Coppens, K., Derluyn, I., De Schryver, M., Loots, G., & Broekaert, E. (2011). Forced conscription of children during armed conflict: Experiences of former child soldiers in Northern Uganda. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(7), 551-562. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.03.011

*Winthrop, R., & Kirk, J. (2008). Learning for a bright future: Schooling, armed conflict, and children’s well-being. Comparative Education Review, 52(4), 639-661. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/591301

*Zahr, L. K. (1996). Effects of war on the behavior of Lebanese preschool children: Influence of home environment and family functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(3), 401-408. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080190

Published
2016-09-01
How to Cite
Cervantes-Duarte, L., & Fernández-Cano, A. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12
Section
Articles (Peer Reviewed Section)