Revista Electrónica Educare http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="http://www.cide.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="http://www.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE) en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Statement" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1RfN-TdFEZbDzVuc7rRZs4_Zk9nPa_c3x/view" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</a></strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="https://creativecommons.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="http://www.una.ac.cr/educare_/../educare" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;/&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/cr/">CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> Faunal knowledge of students in rural schools: a guide for their recognition in science class http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9037 <p>This text aims to describe a methodological proposal to identify, classify, and organize the faunistic knowledge of students of rural schools. The research was conducted with twenty sixth graders from a rural school in the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Through five types of activities, they expressed, in different ways, their knowledge about the animals of the region. The information collected was organized, categorized, and systematized in tables; these tables resulted from the analysis of the information the students provided. It is a possibility of school work that favors the recognition and valuation of the traditional and ancestral knowledge, and its incorporation to the dynamics of the teaching and learning of the Natural Sciences as a way to create “bridges” between that knowledge and the scholarly scientific knowledge. It is a proposal that, among other things, favors the development of more positive attitudes toward science itself, motivates students to ask questions, to recognize the importance of the cultural context, and to recognize themselves as part of a biocultural system.</p> Rubinsten Hernández-Barbosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-13 2018-02-13 1 19 10.15359/ree.22-2.1 Proposal of a Technology Model for Flipped Classroom (T-FliC) in Higher Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8523 <span>The Technology Model, called T-FliC is proposed for Flipped Classroom. The aim is to provide IT facilities to the aforementioned pedagogical model. This proposal may be implemented at different levels of higher education. T-FliC is primarily based on the use of free technology resources, especially Google applications such as Classroom, Drive, and YouTube, because they are widely used by students and teachers. This extensive use permits to replicate this model in different educational contexts. The T-FliC model incorporates five ICT phases, ranging from the planning of teaching-learning activities to continuous learning assessments. The implementation of the T-FliC Model includes the following phases: a digital class (learning outside the classroom) with asynchronous guidance of a virtual tutor; a workshop involving dynamic activities for collaborative work (classroom learning) guided by a tutor in person; and an ongoing technological tools evaluation process (clickers, portfolio, and forum) which will generate the digital records of the student learning path. This article includes a bibliographic review of the role of ICT in the education processes and the fundamentals of the Flipped Classroom (FC) methodology. In the paper are included FC implementation experiences in higher education, followed by the presentation of the T-FliC Model as a technological proposal for this methodology. Finally, the conclusions present reflections on the proposal.</span> Matilde Basso-Aránguiz Mario Bravo-Molina Antonella Castro-Riquelme César Moraga-Contreras ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-15 2018-02-15 1 17 10.15359/ree.22-2.2 Learning Styles: The Experience of the Medical School at the University of Nuevo León, Mexico http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8504 <span>This article aims to clarify the learning style of students in the Medical School at the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon (Mexico). In this research participated 333 students, men and women. They responded to a Honey-Alonso questionnaire to determine their learning styles. The results showed that the participants tend to possess a reflective and pragmatic learning style, which is consistent with the orientation of their professional preparation, and with other similar studies.</span> Pedro César Cantú-Martínez Julia Magdalena Rojas-Márquez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-01-30 2018-01-30 1 8 10.15359/ree.22-2.3 Analysis and Implications of the Results of a Teacher Leader’s Pedagogical Practices in a Pilot Test on Innovation in Conectándonos Project http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8400 <p class="RESUMEN">This article presents the results of a teacher leader’s pedagogical practices in a pilot test on innovation implemented in a Costa Rican primary school. The pilot test was conducted due to the need of renewing the technological equipment in schools belonging to Conectándonos MEP-FQT project run by the Department of Research, Development, and Implementation of the Ministry of Public Education and Quiros-Tanzi Foundation. This pilot test aimed to diagnose the pedagogical practices of a teacher leader through the exploration and use of didactic digital resources of Clamshell-type laptops and an interactive projector. This equipment was used to favor the teacher’s pedagogical mediation through the access, selection, and use of didactic digital resources. To collect the information, we used non-participant observation guides, a questionnaire with open questions, and a bibliographic review of the teacher’s didactic planning. The systematization of the observation guides permitted to put in evidence, naturally and concretely, the aspects covered by the objectives of the study. The information was analyzed with a qualitative approach of phenomenological type. This approach defined categories and subcategories that, later, were linked to establish coincidences, similarities, differences, and the presence or absence of terms and phrases. Likewise, the data were interpreted to relate the information collected through the analysis and the theoretical patterns. This interpretation permitted, afterwards, to reflect on the studied categories. Finally, the main conclusion drawn from the pilot test was that the collaborative work between students was promoted and the learning objectives in the didactic planning drawn up by the teacher were achieved.</p><div> </div> Manuel Baltodano-Enríquez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-16 2018-02-16 1 22 10.15359/ree.22-2.4 Learning Tools in Environmental Education at Fundación Niños de Los Andes in Manizales, Colombia http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8365 <p>This article is part of the results of a research project whose objective was to formulate a strategy for environmental awareness for children and adolescents of the Fundación Niños de Los Andes (Children of the Andes Foundation) in the city of Manizales, Colombia. The methodological process was a quantitative and descriptive approach, using the survey as a tool for information gathering and the SPSS tool for systematization. A later discussion of the results was performed, and it determined the best way to approach the environmental education in children. The main conclusion was that the best strategy for acceptance of environmental education in children is to develop practical workshops that enable them to know, through real cases, environmental issues and ways of approach to prevent these issues, mitigate them, and control them.</p> Gloria Yaneth Flórez-Yepes Alejandro Rincón-Santamaría Pablo Santiago Cardona Felipe Antonio Gallego ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-23 2018-02-23 1 21 10.15359/ree.22-2.5 Being a Good University Teacher: Perspective of Program Directors and Teachers Themselves http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9054 <p class="RESUMEN ParaOverride-4">This research article represents a prolongation of the case study on the perception of a good university teacher from the perspective of the Education Faculty students at Universidad Autónoma de Chile (Autonomous University of Chile), Talca. It intends to contribute with a different understanding of the phenomenon from the perspective of the actors involved. This second part of the research aims to disclose the characteristics of a good University Teacher according to the opinion of the teachers themselves and administrators belonging to that Faculty. The methodology in approach adopted consisted of a qualitative one as well as of a case study. Through a process of categorization and codification, four characteristic dimensions of analysis were obtained: human, ideological, technical-pedagogical and professional-institutional. It is concluded that a good University Teacher has mainly ethical, moral and affective features that structure the interactions with the students’ community. Concerning the main attributes of quality teaching, the permanent curiosity, search for knowledge, and dialogue between the different forms of it are recognized. Technical-pedagogical characteristics that appear in this research as the methodological adaptation of teaching and evaluation emerge as secondary aspects when it comes to qualifying a good University Teacher.</p><div> </div> Rosa Orellana-Fernández Eugenio Merellano-Navarro Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-23 2018-02-23 1 27 10.15359/ree.22-2.6 The Teaching Model through Problem-Based Learning in a Course on Bibliographic Research http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8575 <p class="RESUMEN" lang="en-US"><span class="Bold CharOverride-8" lang="es-ES">The experience of applying problem-based learning (PBL) technique in the Bibliographic Research course from a Bachelor of English study plan of a public university during the first half of 2014 is shared. The investigation aimed to answer the following question: Does the problem-based learning technique in the Bibliographic Research course allows to implement the main tenets of the teaching model: epistemological foundation, learning theory, methodology and didactics, and communication processes? The research approach proposed was qualitative, and triangulation for measuring variables was implemented. The following instruments were applied: observation, experience record books, and focus groups. Furthermore, formative learning was measured by means of an online survey. Results of the instruments were categorized using technology-based tools such as Wordle (observation), NVivo (record books) and MindNode (focus groups). A convenience sampling was used to collect data from eight students enrolled in the Bibliographic Research course, ten students of Integrated English II for non-English majors, and the researcher, as professor of the courses. It was determined that the PBL technique permitted to reach the main tenets of the teaching model. It was identified that the teacher was the main learner, and the one who benefited from the process, since a culture of knowledge, throughout the course, was created. It was also concluded that this technique allowed to develop twenty-first century skills. It would be valuable to quantify whether the development of the four basic skills of English, especially the conversation one, improves using the technique along with technologies.</span></p> Ruth Cristina Hernández-Ching ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-23 2018-02-23 1 10 10.15359/ree.22-2.7 Media Literacy and Learning. Conceptual Contribution in the Field of Media Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8716 <p class="RESUMEN" lang="en-US">The social transformations related to digital technologies and new media offer important challenges to education. The school ceases to be the main space; ways of knowing and producing knowledge expand and diversify; and communicative practices become more complex. This makes it necessary to examine skills and learnings that should be promoted to act and participate in digital and media settings. This article presents a critical conceptual review on media literacy and learning from Latin American, American and European traditions. A reading integrating theoretical contribution from communication and education is proposed. Literacy is understood as a social practice that implies construction and social consensus for the generation and negotiation of meanings through language and learning. It offers pertinent guidelines for an educational curriculum in tune with the challenges of digitization and mediatization of society.</p> Andrea Valdivia-Barrios Daniel Pinto-Torres Minka Herrera-Barraza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 1 16 10.15359/ree.22-2.8 Curricular and Pedagogical Aspects to Be Taken into Account for Curriculum Redesign and Development in a Master’s Program in Higher Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8742 <span> This project addresses the publications of a group of renowned authors in order to highlight important aspects to be considered by the Education Master’s Program in Higher Education and Teaching of the National University of Costa Rica as part of its improvement strategies in teacher education, taking into account the most recent tendencies related to internationalization, mobility, accreditation, academic management and shared leadership in higher education. The paper aims to portray a proposal that fulfills the needs of the Costa Rican master’s programs in higher education and teaching by approaching this country’s reality in terms of what the programs offer. It is a bibliographic research paper, which sources have been published for no longer than 10 years and are truly groundbreaking in regard to the graduate program trends that guide this production. Moreover, as part of the contextualization needed, all master’s degrees in higher education and teaching offered in the country are taken into consideration. As a result of this research, it can be concluded that these programs are pertinent, especially the one offered by the National University of Costa Rica, and it is evident that disseminating the program’s highlights and achievements through processes that respond to quality criteria for graduate programs truly needs to be encouraged.</span> Sindy Susana Alvarado-Herrera German Eduardo González-Sandoval Yarina Paniagua-Cortés ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 1 19 10.15359/ree.22-2.9 Factors That Affect the Entrepreneurial Intention in University Students: A Qualitative Analysis http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8522 <p class="RESUMEN"><span lang="pt-BR">This research aims to explore the factors encouraging entrepreneurial intentions at the Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano (ITM - Metropolitan Technological Institute), located in Medellín. The methodological design set out is a qualitative type through the application of 29 semi-structured interviews to undergraduate students from Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano (ITM). They were interrogated about identified opportunities for new products, family social influence to create a business, balance between work and private life, as well as the motivating situation for business creation. Among the results, it was observed that students searched for creating a business by the expectation of labor independence. Among the suggestions, is set out that universities adopt teaching models oriented to entrepreneurship in order to have an overview over structure of the business sector when students finish their studies.</span></p> Laura Echeverri-Sanchez Alejandro Valencia-Arias Martha Benjumea-Arias Andry Barrera-Del Toro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 1 19 10.15359/ree.22-2.10 Criteria for Employability in Professional Technical Education. Tensions and Challenges in Health Specialty, Araucanía, Chile http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9174 <span>The present research analyzes the employability criteria, when hiring the services of nursery graduates from three secondary technical schools in La Araucanía, Chile. This research project used a mixed methodology, so it was possible to contact health employees from public and private areas, such as teachers, graduates and students from three secondary technical schools and apply to them various research techniques such as questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Among the main results, it is worth mentioning: the re-articulation experienced by the technical and professional high schools in Chile, related to civil society and health system; the need to reinforce the dialog among institutions in the health and sanitary system; technical training and development of socio-emotional abilities of students and research graduates, and finally the demand to advance towards social validity of professional technicians in the health area. Finally, this research aims to contribute to finding mechanisms to improve the work performance of health technicians, as well as identifying obstacles that impede the development of secondary technical education in the country.</span> Hernán Riquelme-Brevis Maira Rivas-Burgos Matías Riquelme-Brevis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-04-04 2018-04-04 1 25 10.15359/ree.22-2.11 Critical and Scientific Thinking Assessment in Preservice Teachers at a Chilean University http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8621 <p class="RESUMEN">This paper describes a research project focused on identifying student-teachers’ critical thinking performance levels in scientific reasoning and, secondly, on analyzing the reliability level of the Critical Thinking Tasks test (CTT). As part of the methodology, a non-probabilistic sample of 129 teacher education students from different majors at Bio-Bio University was considered, and the Critical Thinking Task test was applied to collect data. The data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, reliability measures and mean score differences. The data showed that the instrument is reliable (α=0,79); there is also a relatively low performance in the global test and its dimensions; and there are differences between the different teacher education programs. It is concluded that the instrument is reliable, and findings support the idea that knowledge-based areas influence critical thinking. Finally, it is necessary to strengthen specific sub-skills to enhance critical thinking as a contribution for scientific reasoning.</p> Carlos Ossa-Cornejo Maritza Palma-Luengo Nelly Lagos-San Martín Claudio Díaz-Larenas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 1 18 10.15359/ree.22-2.12 Evaluation of an Experimental Virtual Learning Environment of Winemaking for Middle School and College Students in Chile http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8634 <p class="Articletitle"><span>BITWINE is a virtual learning environment (VLE) that was aimed to develop work competencies in the winemaking industry based on Chilean winemaking work standards. This paper analyzed the learning of the winemaking process as well as the likeability and functionality of BITWINE for university and technical school students. The learning with BITWINE was tested through quasi-experimental tests for groups control (with BITWINE) and experimental (without BIWINE) with written assessment. Furthermore, functionality and likeability perceptions, obtained through written surveys, are analyzed and discussed. The results showed that those students who used BITWINE improved their learning. The perception of BITWINE likeability demonstrated that it was well designed. The studied VLE also contributed to teach how to work with appropriate norms of traceability, hygiene and work safety. However, although BITWINE was quite appreciated as an e-learning tool, it still requires better information and communications technology conditions to be functional.</span></p> Claudio Fredes Sergio Espinoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 1 15 10.15359/ree.22-2.13 Revitalisation Recess as Conflict Resolution and Participation in Physical and Sports Activities http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8683 <span>This research paper aims to see to what extent a project of revitalization of playgrounds contributes to improving coexistence, conflict resolution, and the participation of boys and girls in sport and physical activities. The paper also aims to know the level of motivation and interest the project could have for the students. For this, after initial assessment, a project of revitalization of recreations was designed, and after a few days of training, it was implemented for a month in a primary school in Spain, with 179 students (98 boys and 81 girls) from 1 to 6 grades; it was carried out in the school playground during a 30-minute recess period. The project consisted of two phases of training; the first one explained different games through training days; the second phase featured free recreation and independent work. The project opted for a mixed methodology of collecting information; this methodology included an information questionnaire and participant observation. The study concludes by highlighting the students’ high interest and motivation, the increasing participation, both boys and girls in physical and sports activities, and the reduction of conflicts between students of the center.</span> Gema Castillo-Rodríguez Celestino Carlos Picazo-Córdoba Pedro Gil-Madrona ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 1 22 10.15359/ree.22-2.14 University Literacy and Contact with Sources of Information, Keys for Learning at The University http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8505 <p class="RESUMEN"> Considering that education is subject to permanent dynamic renewal, this study aims to describe and analyze what difficulties are facing students enrolled in two different universities: one is public (Faculty of Elementary and Special Education, National University of Cuyo); the other one is private (Faculty of Psychology, Aconcagua University). Students face difficulties when they get in contact with searching information tasks, as well as with the topics of the so called academic literacy. Theoretical coincidences suggest the existence of an eloquent difficulty of adaptation to university life, which is compounded when taking into account difficulties in working with information search tools as for reading and writing are the basic and constitutive academic elements of literacy. In the face of this problem, it is essential to consider the benefits that the incorporation of a new academic culture could provide to students. So, the general objective of this study becomes to find the link that can be established between the strategies of information search, reading, and writing, and the capitalization of knowledge at the beginning of the university studies for freshmen students in the Faculty of Elementary and Special Education, University of Cuyo (FEEyE), and the Faculty of Psychology, Children, Youth and Family, and Criminalistics, University of Aconcagua; both are located in Mendoza, Argentine. A structured, quantitative design methodology was implemented to achieve this objective; in this methodology, the survey technique was applied, and a questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument, prepared ad hoc for these studies. The 146 participants selected responded to a non-probabilistic sampling strategy, which considered the two universities under study and the four careers chosen. To apply the strategy the students should be enrolled in the second year of their careers, so that this condition could account for the aspects under research. The data obtained were processed from a descriptive, univariate and bivariate statistics, which would provide a descriptive image of the subjects studied, as well as the main variables and indicators mentioned in the research objectives. Thus, by way of conclusion, regarding the contact with sources of information, it is notable that about 13% of the students of both universities do not use ICTs in their university performance, despite public policies in state institutions executed years ago. One in five students does not know how to look for academic information on Internet; they confuse and do not know the available tools. Concerning the axes of academic literacy, reading and writing, the lack of specific disciplinary language appears as one of the main difficulties both to produce and to understand a text, accompanied by the absence of exercise in the production of academic texts of their own. Despite the initial assumption, no significant differences were found to be attributable to the public and private qualities of the universities where the groups under study were enrolled.</p> Fabiana Böhm-Carrer Adrian Edgardo Lucero ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-04-01 2018-04-01 1 27 10.15359/ree.22-2.15 The External Evaluation: A Mechanism to Ensure the Quality of Higher Education in Costa Rica http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8693 <span>This study aims to show that the accreditation involves a dynamic and complex process. The accreditation allows the improvement of higher education because it ensures and promotes quality in all the aspects that compose this educational level. This bibliographic review article considered a range of criteria concerning the standards accrediting bodies use to have self-assessments made. These criteria are associated with different experiences carried out both in Costa Rica and in other Latin American countries. In addition, this article proposes a reflection on the different mechanisms used to evaluate the quality in higher education institutions, as well as an analysis on the role of accreditation in these public universities versus the quality systems and the ways to promote the development of an institutional culture that leads to quality processes in Costa Rica. Among the main findings, the study showed that these processes put in evidence the strengths and weaknesses of the careers or institutions that undergo the accreditation, which allows the implementation of improvement plans leading to a continuously improving process that is subject to external verification following established criteria and standards.</span> María Isabel Torres-Salas Andrea García-Rojas Andrea Alvarado-Arguedas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-04-04 2018-04-04 1 16 10.15359/ree.22-2.16 Thinking About Political Education in Formal Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9076 <span>The purpose of this essay is to share the reflections about the meaning of politics to be able to think, from there, of the potential of a kind of education capable of giving back to the subject the right to take the floor and act, to exercise the politicization in the best possible way. From what is currently observed in countries of different continents, especially those with great inequalities, high levels of corruption and vulnerable sovereignty, the texts of Hannah Arendt (1997) are taken as a source of theoretical reflection in order to bring her into dialogue with more contemporary authors, like Bauman (2001), who invite us to recognize the many devastating faces of fear and their consequent paralyzing effect. After arguing the need to restore politics, reflection is opened to think about the implications of this need for the meaning of education.</span> Ana Corina Fernández Alatorre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 1 22 10.15359/ree.22-2.17 Rethinking Education in a Rural Border Area Between Costa Rica and Nicaragua: The Case of Northern Huetar Region (RHN) http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8531 <span class="Bold" lang="es-ES"> </span><span class="Bold CharOverride-8" lang="es-ES">This essay discusses education in a rural cross-border area of Costa Rica, the Región Huetar Norte (Northern Huetar Region). It aims to raise the need of promoting educational processes that respond to the conditions of this territory. To do this, concepts such as rurality, border, and interculturality are problematized. Later comes a description of the historical conformation of this region, emphasizing the important role of Nicaraguan populations in the colonization of the northern territories; these territories constitute a space of cultural identity favored by the interconnection between both countries. Under the assumption that the inclusion of this “cross-border culture” constitutes a pending challenge for national educational policies, the essay argues for an intercultural education that contemplates the binational experiences of this territory in order to contribute to the exchange, the interaction and cooperation between both borders.</span> Erick Francisco Salas-Acuña ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-26 2018-02-26 1 19 10.15359/ree.22-2.18 Reflecting on Basic Art Education in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Implications for Higher Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8555 <p class="RESUMEN" lang="en-US"><span class="Bold CharOverride-8" lang="es-ES">The basic art education in Aguascalientes, Mexico, faces a significant number of challenges that must be overcome and problems that must be addressed. Among other challenges, the public education system must train a high number of teachers who lack professional qualifications. The system also has to promote the training of its whole teaching staff and satisfy the demand for sufficient pedagogical materials. Thus, the author proposes that higher education must actively get involved with basic education by implementing remedial programs for unqualified teachers. It also must propose continuous education programs to foster a better preparation of the teaching staff and develop research projects that generate knowledge to promote more comprehensive and better-quality art education. The contributions made to the improvement of art education will impact on more sensitive, creative and harmonious human beings.</span></p><p><strong> </strong></p> Raúl Wenceslao Capistrán-Gracia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-03-08 2018-03-08 1 14 10.15359/ree.22-2.19 Humanized Upbringing: A Turn to Power Relations and the Adult-Centered Paradigm in Institutions for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in Situation of Violation of Rights http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8580 <span>This reflection is based on the notes recorded in a field journal and its objective is to systematize the experience acquired as an educator in the Diagnostic and Derivation Center, operated by the University of Antioquia through the Grow with Dignity Project </span><a href="#_idTextAnchor014"><span class="CharOverride-10">(Zuluaga, 2015-2016),</span></a><span class="CharOverride-10"> </span><span>attached to the Unit of Childhood, in the City of Medellín, Colombia, whose purpose is the immediate protection of children and adolescents in situations of violation of rights. We will analyze, here, the power relations that are established within the adult-centered paradigm; we will reveal the genesis of child abuse in these relations, and we will see how these normalized practices in the upbringing of children by their families of origin permeate the protection institutions that have been created to accomplish processes of restoration of rights. When unequal power relationships are instituted and legitimated within the family, the hegemony of adults over childhood is consolidated, and the latter ends up being objectified, like this normalizing their abuse. These relational paradigms are also susceptible to reproduction in educational institutions, including those aimed at the protection of children in situations of violation of rights. We will suggest a proposal called humanized reeducation, which is indicated for group leadership in protection institutions, a task entrusted to educators.</span> Armando Zuluaga-Gómez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-02-03 2018-02-03 1 14 10.15359/ree.22-2.20