Revista Electrónica Educare http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="http://www.cide.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="http://www.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE) en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Statement" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1RfN-TdFEZbDzVuc7rRZs4_Zk9nPa_c3x/view" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</a></strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="https://creativecommons.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="http://www.una.ac.cr/educare_/../educare" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;/&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/cr/">CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> Being Mapuche in the University: Entry Conditions to the Initial Teacher Training, La Araucanía http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9253 <p>This article problematizes social factors that affect the entry to and continuity in higher education of indigenous students who belong to involuntary minority cultures. We advocate the thesis that Mapuche students face personal and social problems that become intercultural tensions whose origin, among other factors, is related to their life before they enter the university. The article aims to describe demographic and academic characteristics, as well as origins, that are particular to Mapuche students of the Education Faculty of Universidad Católica de Temuco. The methodology used was a descriptive statistic analysis of the database of the university. The analysis allowed to draft a demographic profile based on the territorial identities of the students. It also allowed the triangulation of the academic entry conditions, reflected in the students’ average high school grades (NEM), their origin, and their preferences for professional training in the educational area. We conclude that knowing this information, demographic and academic conditions, and preferences in professional training, will allow us to progress in managing strategies and guidelines of action to support students in the process of insertion in the university life.</p> Eliana Marcela Ortiz-Velosa Katerin Elizabeth Arias-Ortega ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-05 2018-10-05 23 1 1 18 10.15359/ree.23-1.1 The Relevance of Pedagogical Translation for the Development of Bilingual Education in Costa Rica http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8711 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The article reflects on bilingualism in Costa Rica in recent years in light of the latest versions of the Reports on the Costa Rican Public School Systems (2011, 2013, 2015 y 2017). Successful contributions of several national and international researches, where teaching translation as effective technique for developing communication skills is proposed, are discussed. Also, the article reviews major historical landmarks of translation in second language teaching. There are programs in the Ministry of Public Education (MEP), public and private colleges, schools and universities, but there is a tendency to associate the use of translation in teaching only with the grammatical method. Later studies could be oriented to compare the progress between populations that have acquired the language as a second language and have worked for a short period of time in a call center, in tourism, or in real life activities where they have to translate or interpret in real mode, compared to those that do not.</span></p> Ruth Cristina Hernández-Ching ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 16 10.15359/ree.23-1.2 Mathematical Self-Confidence of High School Students: A Study in Costa Rica http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9158 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The “mathematical self-confidence” of the Costa Rican secondary education students is studied using the self-confidence subscale of Fennema and Sherman (1976), and the existence of differences in this variable by sex, educational level<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and the school geographical location is analyzed as well. The participants in the study were 2984 students (51% female) from the seventh to the eleventh year of official public day schools of the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica. The participating schools were selected by simple stratified random sampling and by conglomerates, according to the location area (69.5% urban), and according to the population by province (19.5% Alajuela, 12.5% Cartago, 9.3% Guanacaste, 10.6% Heredia, 10.3% Limon, 9.4% Puntarenas, 28.4% San Jose). The students selected for the study in each school sampled were those belonging to the second group of each educational level (18.9% seventh, 20.5% eighth, 21.4% ninth, 19% tenth, 20.2% eleventh). The results suggest that, jointly, about 78.9% of the students show between high and moderate levels of self confidence. They also indicate the existence of differences in the level of mathematical self confidence according to gender, with lower levels for women, with a medium magnitude of differences. The findings also suggest that there are no differences in the level of mathematical self-confidence among the tenth and eleventh level students, but there are in the ninth level; the latter having the highest index of mathematical self-confidence of the three. The study did not detect differences in the level of mathematical self-confidence among students according to the location of the school. The results suggest, at least, the following lines of research: to delve into the causes of the differences detected in the level of mathematical self-confidence by gender and those that may explain why the level of mathematical self-confidence decreases in the students of Diversified Education.</span></p> Luis Gerardo Meza-Cascante Evelyn Agüero-Calvo Zuleyka Suárez-Valdés-Ayala ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 15 10.15359/ree.23-1.3 Characterization of Autonomous Work in a Chilean English Pedagogy Program: Teachers’ and Freshmen’s Perspectives http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9294 <p class="p1">Autonomy in language learning is recognized as a basic skill language learners need to develop. This study describes the autonomous work activities university students carry out in a first-semester course of an English teaching program, and the amount of time they invest in each of these activities. Moreover, it describes the teachers’ perspective on students’ autonomous work. It is a descriptive<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>mixed study with an exploratory scope. The study considers data generated through the application of a questionnaire and an in-depth interview to 48 freshmen from an English Pedagogy Program,<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>as well as a questionnaire and a focus group applied to eight English teachers from the same program. The qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis method; and the quantitative data, through a frequency method of analysis. The analysis reveals that there is an imbalance between the time teachers estimate students devote to autonomous work and the real time students declare to invest in it. In relation to students autonomous work activities, it can be concluded that they concentrate on activities which are less stressful and the ones they do not need to interact with teachers. This study provides empiric information that could be useful to design courses that consider autonomous work.</p> Roxanna Correa-Pérez María Gabriela Sanhueza-Jara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.4 A Multinomial and Predictive Analysis of Factors Associated with University Dropout http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9038 <p class="p1">The phenomenon of dropout, by its complexity and educational and social impact, has been extensively studied to understand the specific causes. In this line of research, the purpose of this study was to analyze explanatory and predictive models of student dropout from university studies at the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (TEC), based on many variables recorded in the institutional system indicators. The first stage of the analysis considered multinomial regression models to identify the influence of these variables on the dropout. In the second analysis, six machine learning algorithms were evaluated in order to find a model that would predict student dropout. Data analysis showed that the probability of dropping out is related to sociodemographic variables, study program, academic history, scholarship and other benefits, and performance after first semester. In addition, the best predictor of dropout algorithm was the “random forest”, a probability of 0.83 to predict the dropout correctly and to capture 34% of the actual student dropout. These results are the first step toward building a more robust predictive model of dropout, which will contribute to preventive decision making in this university.</p> Tatiana Fernández-Martín Martín Solís-Salazar María Teresa Hernández-Jiménez Tania Elena Moreira-Mora ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 25 10.15359/ree.23-1.5 Evaluation of the Design and Didactic Development of Three Blended Learning Subjects. A Pilot Plan of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9221 <p>This article presents the results of the exploratory pre-experimental evaluation process of design and didactic development of three subjects using the semi-distance learning model or blended learning, through a pilot application plan in bachelor’s degrees of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. First, the blended learning model was applied. Later, scientific information was collected through a survey of students, a panel discussion with teachers, and an analysis of the contents of the study programs. The results show that the interaction between students and teachers increases through their favorite activities such as forums and tasks, which strengthen the individual and collaborative work and the reflective analysis, aspects that favor building learnings. Various lines of research arise from this study; they are necessary to go in depth, specifically, in quasi-experimental studies. Some of these lines are the following: to show the assumptions of the blended learning and educational factors that favor the development of meaningful learning for the student; to determine what the cognitive processes, carried out in mixed learning environments, are; and to test the positive relationship between the student’s academic performance and the semi-distance didactics.</p> Isabel Araya-Muñoz Matilde Fonseca-Argüello Jilma Majano-Benavides María Eugenia Ugalde-Villalobos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 23 1 1 16 10.15359/ree.23-1.6 Comprehensive biopedagogical education and training in pharmaco-safety http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9330 <p class="p1">The present work aims to analyze, based on various research papers, the perception of education and formation of the human talent suitable for abilities and capacities that allows people to explain, through the cognitive pharmaceutical attention and the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, the risk factors of the use of drugs. For this, we extracted 43 research papers published between 2005 and 2014, written in English or Spanish, published in Latin America. In these articles seven categories should be found: medicines, health, disease, human talent, and biomedical sciences. The extraction of the articles was done using the Google Academic advanced search tool. To analyse the findings, focused on the previously mentioned categories, a FLOR matrix was used, which considers Strengths, Achievements, Opportunities and Challenges linked to the categories studied from the perspective of education and comprehensive training of students and professionals of the health. Finally, it is concluded that the common objective should be to train comprehensively the human talent in a broader scientific knowledge about pharmacological safety, related to other biomedical and humanistic learning, through a multicultural transdisciplinary team that allows the promotion of the rational use of medicines, in compliance with the responsibility and social function of pharmacist.</p> Flor Ángela Tobón-Marulanda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 23 1 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-1.7 The Absence and Discrimination of Women in the Education of History and Social Sciences Teachers http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9094 <p class="p1">The problem of violence and discrimination based on gender is an aspect we must take in charge as a society. In this line, the objectives of this research have been framed in the reflection on problems and obstacles that arise in teacher training, as well as on possibilities and advantages of including and working with women and their history. The research is a case study that had five participants. The participants were teachers of social science teaching who work in different establishments in Santiago, Chile. The instruments to collect information consisted of semi structured interviews, and the techniques to analyze it took into account the critical theory, poststructuralism, gender theories, and queer theory. Regarding the main findings, it is possible to point out that, for the teaching staff of didactics, there are multiple possibilities to include women and their history in teacher training, as well as in teaching practices. However, for this, spaces that favor the inclusion of women’s problems should be promoted. The participating teachers recommended, as conclusions, that women and other groups that have been invisibilized, marginalized, and have suffered violence in different contexts should reflect on their own pedagogical practices to generate spaces and transformations in face of inequalities, prejudices, stereotypes, and the oppressive roles that women have been given for reasons of gender.</p> Jesús Marolla-Gajardo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.23-1.8 The metaphor as a methodological alternative to investigate and reflect on the pedagogical practice in the teaching of reading and writing http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9244 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article synthesizes the results of a qualitative study, whose objective was to analyze the strategies that a first-grade teacher uses to promote the process of motivation of girls and boys in their class, towards learning to read and write. The metaphor technique is used as a methodological alternative in order to reflect on the pedagogical practice, also integrating the techniques of participant observation, interview and the theoretical foundations. A qualitative design was used, which was adapted to the object of study during the process. The article summarizes the analysis and discussion of the results, with the organization of the information, which is oriented to the elaboration of categories that give unity to the data collected during the research process, evidencing that the findings are conducive to the achievement of the objective presented. In conclusion, it is shown that the pedagogical practice of the teacher participating in this study is located in the positivist paradigm and the behavioral approach to learning. This view is contrary to the integral language proposal. It is considered important to carry out transformations in the Costa Rican formal education system. For this, it is necessary to reflect on pedagogical practices, which involve the belief systems, worldviews, and theoretical conceptions of teachers. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the author of the article is the researcher.</span></p> Grettel Valenciano-Canet ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-1.9 Environmental Education With an Integrative Approach. An Experience in the Initial Formation of Teachers of Mathematics and Physics http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9089 <p class="p1">In the present work, the integrative approach of the process of environmental education in the initial formation of Mathematics and Physics professors of the University of Pinar del Río “Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca” is studied in depth, given the shortcomings that at the cognitive, procedural, and attitudinal level the graduates of this career have in order to keep up with the school requirements. This approach is conceived from all the components of professional training (university, labor, research, and extension components) and is concretized in each academic year based on integrative projects. For this purpose, we used methods of the theoretical, empirical and mathematical-statistical levels of knowledge. The practical validity of the proposal was evaluated from its introduction in the first year of the career through a pre-experiment where 22 students and 11 teachers participated. The techniques used to collect the information were a survey, interviews, and a pedagogical test. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposal, since its use allowed to transform the actions of teachers and students in the academic year and made possible the integrated appropriation of the environmental contents. This experience is generalizable to other academic years and university careers; for this, it is recommended to start from the professional problems related to the environmental education that future graduates must solve according to their profile, as well to guarantee the prior methodological training of teachers of different subjects for interdisciplinary work and cooperate with projects of the year.</p> Caridad Amado Paula-Acosta Jesús Pérez-López Julio Jesús Sierra-Socorro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.10 Cohort Analysis: Dropout, Lag and Terminal Efficiency in the Bachelor of Medicina and Surgery of the University of Medical Sciences http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9091 <p class="p1">This study aims to analyze the institutional completion rates, the dropout rates, the student lag, and the average number of years to successfully complete the degree in Medicine and Surgery. The population consists of four cohorts: from I-2008(n=252), II-2008 (n= 142), I 2009 (n= 214) and II- 2009 (n= 144). The data come from the institutional database “AVATAR”, fed by the Registration Department, with socio-demographic variables and grades by subject and academic period, which are automatically uploaded to the system and corroborated with the reports delivered by each teacher. To analyze the data we used the Stata v-14 package, the survival models (duration models) and a Cox regression model was adjusted. The completion rate is 29,9%, with a duration of 11-13 semesters (5½ 6½ years), 12,8% prolong their studies up to one more semester. The average dropout rate of the cohorts was 55,2%, occurring during the first six semesters of the career. An important cause of dropout is the multiple repetition of Basic Science courses that gives a lag of 14,9%. We recommended to carry out studies that clarify the causes of these results and allow the renovation of didactic methods, curricular redesign, and study methods to overcome these problems.</p> Juan Carlos Vanegas-Pissa Hilda Sancho-Ugalde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.11 The Planning of Assessment in Physical Education: Case Study on Ignored Process in Teaching http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9245 <p class="p1">This article presents the partial results of a broader research on the conceptions and evaluative actions of six physical education teachers in high school in the city of Medellín (Colombia). Specifically, this paper presents the findings on one of its objectives: to analyze the decisions that teachers make before starting a didactic unit (planning on assessment). The research assumed a qualitative design, with a methodological approach of multiple case study. The strategies used for this purpose were the semi-structured interview and documentary analysis. The main findings of the study show that planning on assessment is not a specific activity that requires an interest on the part of the teachers, because their previous experiences give them the security to approach future units without adaptations according to the group or the subject to work on.</p> Beatriz Elena Chaverra-Fernández Juan Luis Hernández-Álvarez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.23-1.12 Disability and Education: Between the Corporality That Disables and the Right to Have Rights http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9125 <p class="p1">This article is the result of an investigation whose main purpose was to analyze the constructions of the concept of disability. We intend to analyze the discourses on disability that teachers working with students in this situation have built. The approach to the data was from a qualitative paradigm, of descriptive scope, and supported by the grounded theory methodology. Questionnaires were applied to 22 participants, basic education teachers. We conclude that the scientific knowledge has hegemonized visions, but in the process it has turned to common sense, leaving aside an important substratum as it is our action in front of other people and the consequences of the interventions and diagnoses that, being scientifically validated, invalidate the others and exclude the others. The above implies looking at teacher training from an ethical and political stage where complex processes of reflection overcome the reduced vision that has been built on disability and its inclusion.</p> Rodolfo Cruz-Vadillo Paulina Iturbide-Fernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 27 10.15359/ree.23-1.13 Building a Methodology for the Learning of English in Rural Context: Learners Insights http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9092 <p class="p1">This article shows the results of a research and university extension project carried out at the Chorotega campus of the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica, titled Constructing an innovative methodology that favors English learning in people with low schooling in rural areas of the Gulf of Nicoya and the Chorotega Region, Costa Rica. (Rosales, Vidaurre y Dover, 2013-2015). The purpose was to show how the participants’ insights contribute to the design of a teaching-learning approach for English<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>learning in<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>non-traditional contexts. A qualitative study was conducted with a descriptive, interpretive design. In this study, the 30 participants became active informants in the research process carried out before, during and after the training; they came from the rural areas of the Gulf of Nicoya and the Chorotega Region. The data was collected using three instruments: observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. The findings showed that the incorporation of the observations and suggestions, exposed by the learners, influenced the process of acquisition of the target language and favored the selection of linguistic, social, and contextual content according to the learners’ reality.</p> Yendry Dover-Carrillo Aleida Rosales-Acosta Rocío Pérez-Vidaurre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 24 10.15359/ree.23-1.14 The Development of Research Competencies, an Alternative to Train Childhood Educators as Teacher-Researchers http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9107 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The training of professionals in charge of educating children is becoming increasingly important, given the impact this has on the quality of education and, likewise, on the improvement of a country’s social conditions. In this sense, this article presents the results about the development of research competencies in the training of professionals in child pedagogy, as a starting point to promote a qualification in this university program. Next, the theoretical perspective on training in research of the child pedagogy staff is developed. Then, the mixed-design methodology is explained; it was implemented through the survey, the focal group, and interviews applied to students, graduate students, teachers and directors, respectively. Once the information was triangulated, the results are presented; they express a favorable assessment of the processes. These processes were conducted by the program to enable the development of research skills, such as the capacity for analysis and reflection on the practice to contribute to children’s education, except for reading skills, on which there is a less positive assessment, and which constitutes a challenge for the university program to improve.</span></p> Zaily del Pilar García-Gutiérrez Inmaculada Aznar-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.15 Students and Tutors’ Perceptions of the Use and Functioning of University Tutoring http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9654 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article aims to study the functioning and perceptions of students and tutors of the university tutoring system in a private university institute in the city of Rosario. An exploratory-descriptive study was used, wich included a case study design. The university tutoring functioning was analized from the tutors’ perspective (with semi-structured interviews) and the first-year students’ perceptions (with the application of a questionnaire). The results indicate that, for tutors, the listening skills, the need for training, and the teamwork capacity are important. With regard to the students, it was found that more than half do not know about the tutoring, and that those who know about it manifest to have received the information from teachers<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and peers. Some of them consider that this space relates to the theoretical orientation and manifest preference toward the academic tutoring function, while others consider that tutoring enables them to carry out a comprehensive vision of university life.</span></p> María Antonella Klug Nadia Soledad Peralta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-1.16 Postgraduate Teaching Students’ Evaluation of the Training in Research Methodology Received During Their Degree, and Its Use in Teaching Practice http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9143 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article analyzes postgraduate teaching students’ evaluations of the training in research methodology received during their degree and its use in the teaching practice. The participants are students attending the Research Methodology course corresponding to a Master’s program, in the pedagogical field, at the Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile. The methodology was qualitative, using open questionnaires and a discussion group. The data were analyzed using a categorical analysis and reduction, through ATLAS.ti 6.0. The main results show a critical view of the participants on the methodology and research training they received in undergraduate courses, as well as the insufficiencies in the training that is focused on the degree´s thesis design and not on giving tools to practice the profession. The participants questioned the role of the university in the education of teachers who do research. Regarding the uses of research methodology in the professional practice, although varied, they are limited by training deficits and institutional conditions. Despite their critics, the participants have high valuation of the significance of research methodology for the development of their professional practice. These results encourage us to suggest elements to nourish the debate about the way in which research methodology should be taught, as well as what research methodology is taught for, in order to contribute to the professional development processes of the teaching-research teams.</span></p> Cristian Orellana-Fonseca Rodrigo Salazar-Jiménez Fernando Farías-Olavarría Soledad Martínez-Labrin Gabriel Pérez-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 23 1 1 25 10.15359/ree.23-1.17 Methodology to Conceive Career Projects in the Higher Education System. Experience of Implementation http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9770 <p class="p1">This article aims to present a methodological proposal for conceiving degree projects in the higher education system. These projects integrate regulatory framework aspects of Ecuador and conceptual elements that consider new paradigms of knowledge. The methodology used consisted of participatory action research that began with an exploratory research design and academic dialogue led by a team of researchers. The methodology allowed establishing the relationship between the elements that integrate career projects with the use of hermeneutics as a method and the analysis of content as a technique for reviewing legal and conceptual documents published by the Ecuadorian Higher Education Council (CES). The next phase consisted of a process of orientation and accompaniment to work teams; while in the final phase, the result was the generation of this methodological proposal and the presentation of the projects for redesigning the agricultural and communication careers at the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, in Ibarra (PUCE-SI). The projects were approved and are currently offered, so that the methodology is considered validated satisfactorily. This work is very useful for the academic departments of higher education institutions because, based on legal and conceptual elements, it formulates pragmatic orientations in the identification of key aspects that allow conceiving and articulating the curriculum of career projects.</p> Luz Marina Rodríguez-Cisneros Amparo del Carmen Reascos-Trujillo José Valdemar Andrade-Cadena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.18 Perception of Pedagogy Students About the Usefulness of Blogs in Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9941 <p class="p1">The use of blogs, given their ease of creation and functionality, can be an opportunity for teachers in training to use ICT in education. In this research we ask what perception the teaching staff in training have of the use of blogs in an academic context of higher education and what experience of use and interaction with blogs they had at school level. For this reason, in order to obtain information at university level, we used the scale of assessment of the usefulness of blogs in higher education. A semi-structured interview was applied to learn about the experience of using and interacting with blogs at school level and how it projects the use of blogs as future teachers. The sample was 100 first-year students of pedagogy, enrolled in pedagogy careers of a faculty of education of a university in the south of Chile. The results indicate that, at the school level, most students did not use or interact with blogs, and that, at the higher education level, the least favored dimension is implementing curriculum by using blogs.</p> Carolina Zambrano-Matamala Darío Rojas-Díaz Pedro Salcedo-Lagos Ociel López-Jara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 23 1 1 16 10.15359/ree.23-1.19 Have You Got Evaluative Reason? Notes for the Deepening of a Philosophical Notion of Education http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9024 <p class="p1">This essay is based on a question that seeks to find a critical deepening around the investigation of a type of rationality that inhabits modern education and that in our research we have chosen to call evaluative reason. The Deleuzian reflection on the control societies, subsidiary of Foucault’s notion of disciplinary societies, will be a phagocyte reference point to introduce us to the question of this type of rationality that, as we analyze here, also harbors characteristics of the so-called pastoral power in intimate relationship with the contemporary configurations of capitalism. It will be offered a provisional definition of the evaluative reason, in the light of the own analyzes that involve notions such as those of discipline, technologies of government, normalization and biopolitics–which we will rethink here–to advance in a more complex look that relates the ethical, the political, the social, and the economic, with the philosophical-educational, aspects of our approach as a way of approaching the nexus that this rationality sketches between education and the current control societies. In this way, the evaluative reason will open up as an ethical-political problem that is fundamental to address since: a) it has been historically configured in such a way that it crosses and bases practices, technologies and devices; b) with more and more subtle vigilance and increasingly justified sanctions in their “pedagogical” eagerness, it stands between monitoring and calculation that reduce all power of otherness; c) it has a racist dimension whose versatility allows it to move between normalization and normation; d) it helps multiply the market model by setting procedures that place the subject as a self-entrepreneur. Finally, the lines of this analysis hope to become clues to elucidate new forms of resistance and re-existence against the contemporary evaluative compulsion.</p> Facundo Giuliano ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2018-11-13 2018-11-13 23 1 1 22 10.15359/ree.23-1.20