Revista Electrónica Educare 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 MAU. Liana Penabad-Camacho Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Assessment Criteria Cited, Perceived, and Used by Mathematics Teachers in Primary Education 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 Maria-João Marques-Oliveira Manuel Montanero <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This work mainly aims to compare the assessment criteria considered most relevant by Mathematics teachers in Elementary Education with those they actually use and the perception their students have. <strong>Method. </strong>To this effect, we interviewed 30 teachers and 120 students. Additionally, the teachers participated in a blinded assessment of one student’s exam based on the criteria discovery method. They were asked to grade a test involving several mathematical tasks which a student had previously solved. They could ask questions to the interviewer without seeing the document. <strong>Results. </strong>Based on the transcriptions of the interviews, a content analysis was conducted to categorize and compare the assessment criteria expressed (by the teachers), perceived (by the students), and those used (in the blind assessment). <strong>Discussion and conclusions. </strong>The results suggest that teachers consider mental arithmetic, comprehension, and, above all, mathematical reasoning as the most important criteria. However, most of their students do not have the same perception. Furthermore, a third of the teachers are not sufficiently aware of the assessment criteria they are, in fact, using. Finally, we discuss the influence of assessment in mathematics.</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Motivation and Perception of Students in Direct Command Teaching Styles and Problem-Solving in Physical Education 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 Ángela Corrales-Perea María Espada <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>To analyze motivation and development channels according to the different teaching styles used through the intervention of the Rhythm and Music Support Didactic Unit. <strong>Method.</strong> It is a quasi-experimental and quantitative design, and 53 students participated in this study. They were divided into two groups; one group received an intervention based on the direct command teaching style and problem-solving technique, in this order, while the second group did it the other way round. The Rhythm and Musical Support Didactic Unit consists of 4 sessions of 50 minutes each one. <strong>Results. </strong>The information was collected through two questionnaires and analyzed through the statistical program IBM-SPSS version 24 for Windows. After the intervention, there were no improvements in the BPNES, while the cognitive, physical, and emotional factors presented higher scores through the problem-solving teaching style. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The problem-solving teaching style shows more development in the relationship between classmates, surpassing the direct command teaching style. Regarding the gender variable, it is reflected that women who started with the problem-solving style have a higher level of autonomy.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Education for the Culture of Peace in the Context of Los Pastos, Colombia 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Edgar Guillermo Mesa-Manosalva <p class="p1"><strong>Objective</strong>. To analyze the worldviews of the Pachamama, collective minga, popular religiosity, Pastuso’s tales, and Carnival of Blacks and Whites in the context of Los Pastos to consolidate the culture of peace within the framework of the final agreement for the termination of the conflict and the construction of a stable and lasting peace. <strong>Method.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong> An investigation with a qualitative and ethnographic approach was conducted to describe the lifestyle, understanding, and interpretation of human and social reality and its educational implications in various settings. A select group of teachers was chosen for in-depth interviews, as well as peasants and indigenous people for informal interviews; besides, participant observation was implemented in municipalities of Pastuso descent. The information was structured in four inductive categories in the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.Ti. <strong>Results.</strong> The main results indicate that worldviews could be necessary and pertinent theoretical-practical references for the resolution and transformation of conflicts and the education and consolidation of the culture of peace. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Conceptual references are important to value economic, social, and cultural collectivism; preserve balance, harmony, reciprocity, and complementarity; promote the social fabric, survival, and good living; and manage partying, good humor, and happiness. It is recommended to know the ethnic-cultural contexts to offer a comprehensive, libertarian, emancipatory, and contextualized education.</p> 2022-07-10T16:27:41-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Learning Methodology Preferences 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 Néstor Flórez-Oviedo Catalina González-Penagos <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This work aims to identify the sociodemographic factors influencing the learning methodology preferences of students enrolled in a Childhood Education Bachelor’s Degree program at a University in Medellín, Colombia. <strong>Methodology.</strong><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>A quantitative approach study was conducted with a sample of 160 students. The results obtained were associated according to the Chi-square statistical test with a significance level of less than 5%. <strong>Analysis of results</strong>. Four learning methodologies were identified in the students. They still remember these methodologies either because of lessons learned or because of the routine of different classes at the university. From the 13 variables considered, the study found that the family typology is directly associated with the learning methodology that students prefer to achieve meaningful learning; many studies have linked these two variables, but they do not include other studies conducted for students at the university level. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>It is suggested to carry out a study that can show the relation of the family factor and other sociodemographic factors with choosing the type of study. This can consider various factors from the family background to the academic development before starting university studies.</p> 2022-07-03T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the Evolution of Primary Education Textbooks from a Critical Perspective: Study of the Musical Repertoire From 1994 to 2019 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Pablo Marín-Liébana José Salvador Blasco-Magraner Ana María Botella-Nicolás <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>Textbooks are one of the main objects of study in the history of education as depositories of the ideology of the group from which they emanate and a reflection of the meanings that make up the school culture. On the other hand, critical musical pedagogy movements are committed to using a repertoire linked to the students’ musical identities and preferences. From this perspective, this paper analyzes the evolution of the musical repertoire of music textbooks in primary education in the province of Valencia from 1994 to 2019. <strong>Methodology. </strong>1121 musical pieces belonging to 18 manuals were analyzed through content analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> The results indicate a trend towards greater musical diversity, although with a predominance of classical-romantic and folk-traditional music and a low representation of popular music. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The progressive inclusion of popular music in textbooks could be used to recognize and give voice to the students’ musical identities. However, this repertoire is very heterogeneous and does not necessarily have to include their current musical preferences.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-08-21T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Towards an Evaluation in an Indigenous context: The Case of a Mapuche School in Chile 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 Miguel Del Pino-Sepúlveda Froilán Cubillos Diego Pinto <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> This study presents the case of a Mapuche school, which, based on the construction and recent validation of its Study Programs before the Ministry of Education of Chile, seeks the development of an educational evaluation in line with its study plans. The objectives were the following: 1. Identify the purpose of evaluation in an indigenous context based on the voices of its protagonists, and 2. Describe the conceptual elements that evaluation in an indigenous Mapuche context should have for its development. <strong>Method.</strong> It was participatory with the dialogic-kishu kimkelay ta che approach, together with Mapuche teachers, undergraduate students, school boys and girls, and scholars. The procedures of dialogic conversation and collective dialogue were used. The information collected was validated through a communicative analysis of the constructed knowledge. <strong>Results. </strong>The concept of kvmecegeam is highlighted as the purpose of the evaluation in terms of a formative assessment of learning, and the territorial and socio-cultural components as elements that allow directing and redirecting the evaluation process based on pertinent socio-historical and geographical characteristics. <strong>Discussion.</strong> An evaluation pertinent to the indigenous context is promoted, unlike the standardization imprint of learning and evaluation in Chile, where the cultural origin of each one is unknown. In this sense, guidelines or general orientations are offered to begin to develop a field of knowledge that is still little explored and not much progress has been made.</span></p> 2022-07-03T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Classroom Learning Environment and School Performance 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Selma de Cássia Martinelli Nathalie Muelle-Zúñiga Larissa Jéssica Alves <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Goal.</strong> Investigate and compare the perceptions of students with different levels of school performance regarding harmony and cooperation among peers, participation, and involvement with learning and teacher support. <strong>Methodology. </strong>There were 04 groups with different levels of school performance. The sample was composed of 152 students from one elementary school, in a Brazilian city, from 6th to 9th grade, aged 11 to 15 years old (M= 12.65; SD= 1.34), with 101 (66.40%) female participants. <strong>Results.</strong> The results revealed significant differences between the perceptions of participation and engagement with learning and teacher support and were more positive for those who had better school performance. <strong>Discussion.</strong> In general, differences were observed in the perception of the students about the learning environment. It is believed that the results obtained can be useful to guide teachers and public education policies on the impact of the classroom environment on the quality of teaching.</span></p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validating the Application of the TPACK Model Associated with the Skills of Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge of Preschool Educators 2022-08-30T12:56:43-06:00 Carolina Fernández-Chávez Paola Domínguez-Ramírez Pedro Salcedo-Lagos <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This study aimed to validate an instrument that allows knowing the perception nursery educators have about their disciplinary, pedagogical, and technological knowledge when they incorporate ICT in teaching two skills that underlie learning to read and write: phonological awareness and letter knowledge. <strong>Methodology.</strong> This research was a non-experimental, cross-sectional, quantitative study. A Likert-type survey, composed of 54 items that collect information from seven dimensions considered by the TPACK model, was used as an instrument. Thirty nursery educators participated in this study; they work with children of Transition level (early childhood education) from municipal schools in Penco, province of Concepción, Chile. For the validation of the instrument, the expert judgment technique was used, according to the method of <span class="s1">Lawshe (1975)</span> and the modifications made by <span class="s1">Tristán-López (2008); </span>for its reliability, the internal consistency coefficient Cronbach’s alpha was considered. <strong>Results.</strong> The main results indicate that the scale has high reliability and significant positive correlations, which indicates that it is a valid tool to be used as a diagnostic instrument that will identify the weaknesses and strengths of nursery educators in terms of their knowledge regarding the use of ICT for educational purposes in written language.</p> 2022-07-05T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship Between Research Training, the Strengthening of Autonomous Learning and Time Management in Undergraduate Medical Education 2022-08-30T12:56:43-06:00 Lina Maria Martínez-Sánchez Juliana Lucía Molina-Valencia Libia María Rodríguez-Padilla Juan Pablo Ruiz-Rodríguez Laura Isabel Jaramillo-Jaramillo <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> In medical education, it is important to develop competencies that encourage learning to learn through flexible strategies such as research training. <strong>Objective.</strong> To determine the relationship between research training, autonomous learning strengthening, and medical students’ time management. <strong>Methodology.</strong> A mixed-design study with quantitative (transversal analytical) and qualitative (focus groups and interview) components. In the study participated 110 last semesters students who signed an informed consent document. A sociodemographic-academic instrument, a scale of preparation for independent learning, and time management instrument were applied. A descriptive analysis of the variables was conducted, and the scores obtained were compared among students linked or not to research processes through the student’s t-test. <strong>Results</strong>. Of the participants, 60.6% were women, 94.5% did not work, and 85.5% came from private schools. Most students have access to computers and internet services, 96.4% and 98.2%, respectively. Students linked to research processes obtained higher scores on the scale of independent learning than those who were not linked (Difference in means: 7, IC95%: 1-13, p = 0.02) in aspects related to the desire to learn (p = 0.004). In the same way, there were marginal differences in time management (Difference in means: 4.3, 95% CI: 0.2-8.5, p = 0.04), related to short-term planning (p = 0.03). In the interviews and focus groups, the students highlighted the competencies in the critical analysis developed in research courses. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Students linked to research processes have higher scores on the EPAI and TQM scales, showing that research enhances skills related to self-directed learning and time management.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementing the Methodological Script as a University Curricular Experience for the Development of Teamwork Competence 2022-08-30T12:56:43-06:00 Elma Barahona-Henry Carla Leticia Paz-Delgado Antonio Vicente Giner-Gomis <p class="p1"><strong>Aim.</strong> Cooperative competence is considered a key in the teaching profession, which is why this work evaluated its promotion from the perception of students and teachers in the context of initial training. <strong>Method.</strong> For this, a curricular proposal was designed from the action research perspective in the classroom, from the methodological script of the pedagogical space of learning psychology, and from an evaluative perspective analyzing initial, procedural, and final phases. The instruments used were a closed questionnaire to assess the students’ training needs, a researcher’s journal to record the reflections of the teaching team, and a semi-structured interview applied to students. The participants were 47 students 3 teachers. <strong>Results.</strong> The results indicate that, for the students, the training experience implemented favored the reconstruction of meanings, experiences, and understandings of cooperative work in the context of the profession and, from the teachers’ perception, allowed new spaces for reflection and integration of the theory and practice. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The curricular experience implemented in a dialogical and cooperative context allowed understanding that cooperative competence is not an end in itself but rather favors the construction of teaching identity.</p> 2022-07-03T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Assessment of Students about the School Climate, Coexistence, and Violence in Middle Schools in Northwestern Mexico 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 NohemÍ Guadalupe Calderón-González José Ángel Vera-Noriega <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> Identify the assessment of the students about democratic coexistence in their school, the relationship with their classmates, violence on campus, and the school climate in general. <strong>Method. </strong>It is a quantitative, cross-sectional, and correlational study in which 346 adolescents between 11 and 15 years of age participated; they came from six locations in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The School Climate Scale and the School Coexistence Scale were used, showing evidence of reliability. Comparison of means analysis was performed through Student’s t statistic and logistic regression. <strong>Results. </strong>There is a significant difference between the two contrasted groups: (a) those who perceive violence and have been molested in the last week at their school, and (b) those who do not perceive violence and have not been molested. The logistic regression model yielded a Nagelkerke R of 0.58, which adequately classifies 82.9% of the cases. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> This logistic regression model is suitable for predicting the risk of adolescent public high school students of being molested by other peers and perceiving high levels of violence. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct systematic evaluations to identify student profiles and know the relationships between the dimensions of coexistence and school climate.</p> 2022-08-21T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Monocultural Education in the Teaching of Visual Arts in Contexts of Cultural Diversity in Chile: A Critical Vision from the Araucanía Region 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Fernando Paz-Mardones Francisco Kotthoff-Cristensen Freddy Fuentes-Jara Christian Collipal-Velásquez Enrique Riquelme-Mella Amy Halberstadt <p><strong><span class="Ninguno CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span></strong><span class="Ninguno">&nbsp;The central topic of the study is the influence of the application of a monocultural curriculum on the conceptions of the teaching of visual arts and its impact on learning, the construction of cultural identity, and recognition between Mapuche and non-Mapuche students.&nbsp;</span><strong><span class="Ninguno CharOverride-6">Objective.</span></strong><span class="Ninguno">&nbsp;To reveal teachers’ conceptions concerning the teaching of visual arts, the curriculum for the subject, and the context of cultural diversity in the Pehuenche area.&nbsp;</span><strong><span class="Ninguno CharOverride-6">Methodology.</span></strong><span class="Ninguno"><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The methodological approach is qualitative and exploratory. The participants are seven secondary school visual arts teachers in an area populated by the Pehuenche ethnic group in the Araucanía Region of Chile. The data were collected by semi-structured interview and analyzed by axial, selective open coding, with triangulation between the investigators and the teachers to support the validity of the findings.&nbsp;</span><strong><span class="Ninguno CharOverride-6">Results.</span></strong><span class="Ninguno">&nbsp;The main results show a lack of knowledge among the teachers of the multicultural context, deficiencies in initial teacher training, and the general problem of the relation between a monocultural curriculum and its effect on teachers’ beliefs about teaching visual arts in the context of cultural diversity.&nbsp;</span><strong><span class="Ninguno CharOverride-6">Conclusions.</span></strong><span class="Ninguno">&nbsp;Visual arts teachers’ beliefs are affected by a monocultural curriculum, which is related to standardization and the negative values that it imposes. Furthermore, the curriculum conditions initial teacher training, standardizing teaching without consideration for contextual variables.</span></p> 2022-08-21T19:54:15-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validity of a Content-Judged Instrument About the Implementation of Emotional Education Projects 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Miguel Ángel Yunta-Ibarrondo Clara Romero-Pérez <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> This study aims to design and validate the content of a questionnaire for teachers participating in emotional education projects at the levels of kindergarten, primary, and secondary education. The instrument aims to elicit teachers’ opinions on five factors that condition the implementation of emotional education projects. <strong>Method</strong>. Designing an instrument validation corresponding to the exploratory stage (content validity) of the construct factors, which affect the implementation in emotional education. The agreements of 11 judges determined content validity, and 4 existing instruments were adapted to design the questionnaire. The scale has five dimensions and is made up of 88 items. <strong>Results.</strong> The findings show that the questionnaire facilitates the organization of information into items by dimension and satisfies the criteria of sufficiency, clarity, coherence, and relevance. The instrument reaches a statistically significant inter-judge agreement, although the level of agreement is low. The modifications the judges indicated were incorporated. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The evaluated instrument was finally composed of 86 items, of which 31 items were reformulated and 5 rejected. The level of measurement of the items included nominal measures (8 items) and 78 interval items. The findings show an adequate validity of the questionnaire, which proved to have a valid structure and content for the further validation of the metric properties of the instrument.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## High School students and Climate Change. A Study from Social Representations 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Raúl Calixto-Flores <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> High school students are not strangers to the accumulation of information transmitted day by day on different media regarding environmental problems. Under this context, students shape social representations of climate change. <strong>Methodology. </strong>The research was conducted from a qualitative perspective, following the processual approach to social representations. The following techniques were used to collect written and verbal information from students: free evocation, associative chart, narrative drawing, and a scale of attitudes. The information obtained was triangulated, the textual testimonies and the frequencies of responses were analyzed, and the results were systematized and interpreted. <strong>Results</strong>. It is observed that the students’ social representations contain poor scientific knowledge, notions and opinions abound in them, and they also have and reflect a sense of favorable attitudes towards the environment. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The results are like those obtained in other investigations, and some mistaken notions about climate change (consequences-causes) persist and even increase as people grow older. In addition, the prevalence of several confusions in their social representations is observed, for example, between weather and climate and the hole in the ozone layer due to climate change. Unlike other studies, in this research, the influence of environmental education in shaping favorable attitudes towards the environment is perceived in the students’ testimonies.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Engagement, Academic Motivation, and Adjustment of University Students 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Rubia Cobo-Rendón Yaranay López-Angulo Fabiola Sáez-Delgado Javier Mella-Norambuena <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The entrance of young people to the university is a challenging and important period in their life, both academically and personally. It is required to have a set of skills that allow them to adjust satisfactorily to the demands of the new context. This adjustment process to university life becomes a key variable since it allows facing the motivation, execution, and performance requirements of the university experience in the first years. It is necessary to know those variables that predict an adequate academic adjustment of the students to propose timely improvement interventions. <strong>Objective.</strong> The objective is to evaluate the predictive capacity of engagement and academic motivation in the adjustment process of university students. <strong>Method.</strong> Cross-sectional predictive design, and a sample of 512 first-year students from a Chilean university (Male = 297; Female = 215). Average age of 19 years (SD = 1.49). <strong>Results</strong>. The results reveal that the regression models were statistically significant. Engagement was the highest predictor of academic adjustment (β = .511; p &lt;.01; r2 = .40), institutional (B = .30; p &lt;.01; r2 = .37), social (β = .29; p &lt;.01; r2 = .15) and personal-emotional (β = .30; p &lt;.01; r2 = .10), followed by autonomous motivation. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Academic engagement is relevant not only in promoting performance but also in the integration processes of university students. In conclusion, academic engagement and autonomous motivation are predictors of adjustment to university life.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reflections on Intercultural Experiences of Mapuche Students at University: Academic and Affective Dimensions in Projection 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Eliana Marcela Ortiz-Velosa Enrique Riquelme-Mella Ximena Gutiérrez-Saldivia <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The experience of minority groups in academic training arises in a scenario of tensions between the predominantly Western and monocultural education system related to family education and different types of knowledge acquired by students, as well as the reproduction of other forms of racism. These tensions have been well documented during school years, while in the university education of indigenous students in Chile, the tensions have been scarcely explored.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span><strong>Objective. </strong>This study examines the beliefs and representations of a group of Mapuche students concerning their academic and socio-affective experiences at a university in Temuco, Chile. The study was conducted in the context of initial teacher training immersed in an education system traditionally monocultural. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The methodological design was based on educational research and an interpretive paradigm. Twelve students who self-identify as Mapuche indigenous people were interviewed. These interviews were analyzed through the open coding technique.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span><strong>Results.</strong> The main results reveal that university experiences are diverse and keep core contents related to discrimination, which influences the insertion and progression in vocational training. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The study allowed identifying the most satisfactory university experiences, those associated with the positioning of the student with respect to their cultural identification, and the creation and maintenance of support networks.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thinking Skills, Reading Comprehension, and Working Memory in Normal-School Students 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Ismael Esquivel-Gámez Karina Estela Gálvez-Buenfil Flora Lilia Barrios-Martínez <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This work aimed to evaluate thinking skills, reading comprehension, and working memory in pre-service teacher students from Veracruz, Mexico, and analyze the possible relationships between them, in order to have the bases to prevent possible deficiencies and correct them from the teacher training stage. <strong>Methodology.</strong> It is a study with a quantitative approach and a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational, and prospective design in which 45 students from two institutions in the area participated. Different tests and a Likert scale with 19 items were used to measure thinking skills. For reading comprehension, a cloze-type test was used; and for working memory in its verbal and visuospatial domain, complex span tasks were used. <strong>Results analysis.</strong> Serious deficiencies in thinking skills were found. Those corresponding to inductive verbal and figurative reasoning had a positive and significant association with some verbal and visuospatial working memory measures. Furthermore, the reading comprehension level was low and positively associated with thinking skills tests requiring little or no reading effort. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Firstly, this work allows recognizing the worrying condition of future teachers of children in basic cognitive skills. Secondly, it proposes ways of developing thinking skills through training working memory and strengthening comprehension reading and vocabulary.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Discourse Analysis of the Educational Offer in Web Pages of Chilean Universities: The Case of Nursing 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Eugenia Urra-Medina Sandra Sandoval-Barrientos Miguel Suarez-Olivares Zita María Teresa Julia-Jorquera <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The massification of enrollment in universities makes them compete for more applicants, generating a differentiation between careers. Nursing exemplifies this process of expansion of tertiary education in Chile. In this context, there is little evidence of how the careers are positioned and what differences in language resources are used in the advertising discourse. <strong>Objective. </strong>To analyze the discourse based on the theory of valuation of nursing careers in websites and to identify the differentiation valuation resources in them. <strong>Methodology.</strong> It is a descriptive interpretative study. A corpus of 41 Nursing websites was reviewed with a description of texts, identification of valuation resources, and determination of the meanings of valuation dimensions. <strong>Results.</strong> Nursing careers use marketing in which the characteristics of the (consumer) product and the promise of the future stand out over those discourses oriented to formative-educational aspects (such as the quality of teaching or the humanistic emphasis). However, there are differences in the discourses when using valuation resources. In universities belonging to the Council of Rectors (CRUCH), prestige is highlighted, while in private universities (NO-CRUCH), all resources are used to ensure their brand distinction to applicants. <strong>Recommendations.</strong> Although the universities differ in their strategies (prestige/brand), they aim at the same practice of attracting students. Future studies are recommended to analyze the coherence between the discourse of the offer, the quality of the educational training received, and the control of the veracity of advertising messages in education.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of a Personal Development Program for Chilean High School Students 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Nelly Lagos-San Martín Víctor Hermosilla-Cabrera José Manuel García-Fernández Maritza Palma-Luengo Carlos Ossa-Cornejo <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective.</strong> An adaptation of a personal development program created in Spain for use in the Chilean educational context is proposed and submitted for evaluation. The idea is to provide a concrete proposal that strengthens one of the thematic axes proposed in Chile as part of adolescents’ personal development and evaluate it to determine its effectiveness. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The research design corresponds to a quasi-experimental line with pre- and post-test and control groups, calculating t-tests to determine the existence of statistical differences between the results of the initial and final evaluation of self-concept, emotional intelligence, anxiety, and self-efficacy. These constructs were measured with the Self-Description Questionnaire II, short version (SDQII-S), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24), the State and Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-S), and the General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. The sample included 182 high school students from the commune of Chillán, 88 males and 94 females (48% and 52%, respectively), aged between 14 and 17 years (M=15; SD; 1.01), who were selected by convenience, according to the criterion of accessibility. <strong>Results</strong>. The results indicate that the program shows statistically significant improvements of small and moderate magnitude in the experimental group. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> For the same reason, it can be reported that the program was positively evaluated using a satisfaction survey, so it is estimated that this proposal has been able to respond to the training needs of the Chilean educational system.</span></p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Uses and abuses of Social Media by Spanish Secondary Education students 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Isabel Dans-Álvarez-de-Sotomayor Pablo César Muñoz-Carril Mercedes González-Sanmamed <p class="p1"><strong>Aim. </strong>This article focuses on adolescents’ perceptions regarding the use of social media. Specifically, it mainly aims to determine which aspects related to social media are of concern to adolescents from A Coruña (Spain). <strong>Method.</strong> The study was conducted using a quantitative methodology with a non-experimental design of the ex post facto type and a questionnaire that 1144 adolescents from 4th ESO (Compulsory Secondary Education) answered. <strong>Results.</strong> The result shows that addiction and deception are the issues of greater concern. Furthermore, there are significant differences between the participants: women are more aware of the risks, and men, with a low academic performance profile, are more daring and feel more conditioned in their mood depending on the social media they use. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Young people do know the dangers of social media are reluctant to publicly expose their families, and express different perceptions about their own image and that of their friends.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Real-time Boredom Evaluation Technique in College Students 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Leonardo Garro-Mena Jenny Andrea Calderón-Castro <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>Various studies have associated boredom in educational processes with a variety of negative effects. It is believed that boredom is caused by a failure in the environment to fulfill our need for motivation. Many tools (scales) have been developed to measure it. However, these scales are designed to measure global boredom, that is, at the end of the process, not in its stages. The present study seeks to develop a methodology to evaluate the effect of boredom in the stages of a university class to have a tool for the quantitative evaluation of specific activities. <strong>Method.</strong> This study proposed a boredom measurement scale with a minimally disruptive intervention tool. The data obtained undergo mathematical processing to reduce the effect of subjectivity (perceived level of boredom) on the scale. The proposed methodology was applied to a group of students from the University of Costa Rica. <strong>Results.</strong> The most important result was the correlation between specific activities in a class and the gradient of boredom. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The reduction in the variability between students achieved with mathematical processing allows the proposed methodology to be used for the quantitative analysis of the stages of a class based on perceived boredom. This information can be used to design learning processes focused not only on the global process but on each stage of it, which, to the best of our knowledge, is not achieved by any of the commonly used scales.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perception of Primary School Students and Teachers about Scientific Skills Associated with Student Cognitive Development 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Yesica Ochoa-López Liliana Canquíz-Rincón Karin Lubo-De la Rosa <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This study mainly aimed to analyze the perception of teaching staff and 5th-grade primary school students about cognitive development and scientific skills. <strong>Methodology.</strong> A quantitative descriptive approach was used. Surveys were applied to a sample of 101 5th-grade students and 18 primary school teachers from a school in the Colombian Caribbean region. They were processed under the parameters of descriptive statistics and organized according to frequency distributions, percentage analysis, and trend measurements. <strong>Results.</strong> From the student perspective, it was obtained that low academic performance is associated with little understanding of the topics developed in the classroom as a result of the implemented methodologies. From the teacher’s point of view, academic difficulties are related to the low development of cognitive processes and students’ apathy towards their studies. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> In terms of scientific skills, the results show that the student body presents a limited performance in processes that demonstrate the understanding, construction, and analysis of scientific knowledge; so, from teaching practice, it is necessary to strengthen knowledge associated with scientific practices in the classroom. It was determined that traditional pedagogical practices are among the factors limiting students’ cognitive development. However, the teaching staff recognizes the importance of scientific skills, accompanied by innovative pedagogical strategies that favor their development.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Conditions for Socialization with Teaching in Portugal: Analysis of the Training Model and Teacher Trainers 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Carlinda Leite Fátima Sousa-Pereira <p class="p1"><strong>Aim.</strong> The study focused on initial teacher education and analyzed the model adopted in Portugal, in 2007, in the adaptation to the Bologna Process, as well as the academic and professional profile of teachers who teach initiation to professional practice/supervised teaching practice subjects. This analysis aimed to evaluate if there are conditions favoring sufficient contact with professional situations and socialization with the teaching profession. <strong>Method.</strong> A critical analysis was applied to the curricular matrix that guides the initial teacher training courses for the twelve-year compulsory education and the documentary analysis of the Curricula Vitae of the 482 teachers who assure these subjects in the 127 existing courses in Portugal. <strong>Findings.</strong> The training model followed compromises socialization with the profession that allows future teachers to prepare themselves for the complexity of the situations that professional practice presents daily in schools. Although most teachers who teach these subjects are PhDs, they do not always have academic training in education and have few references to professional development and research activities related to the subjects they teach. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Considering the importance of initial training to prepare for the exercise of the teaching profession, in the organization of courses, it is justified to pay particular attention to these introductory subjects and the profile of the teachers who teach them.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Environmental Awareness and Climate Change: A Study with Pre-service Primary Teachers 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Sandra Laso-Salvador José María Marbán-Prieto Mercedes Ruiz-Pastrana <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> There is a broad consensus when recognizing the important role that education plays as an engine of change and social transformation, as well as in the development of a critical and committed citizenry. In this framework, the fight against global problems such as climate change requires efficient transversal, systemic, and affective-cognitive tools. <strong>Objective.</strong> The present study addresses this question in the context of initial training of pre-service primary school teachers that has, as a backbone, environmental awareness and looks for research-based evidence. <strong>Method.</strong> A teaching experiment has been implemented and studied through a qualitative approach and by means of a content analysis technique supported by software. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The data describe changes in the participants’ environmental awareness that allow identifying opportunities to contribute to generating environmentally responsible behavior in future teaching work of pre-service primary teachers.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Towards a Transformation of Angolan Society: ICT and COVID-19 in Higher Education 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Arnaldo Faustino Sulma Rosa Herrera-Cuesta Dayannis Davis-Blanco Eurico Wongo-Gungula <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Republic of Angola, committed to the development of Angolan society, have reviewed their policies to implement information and communication technologies (ICT) to help teachers to succeed and increase their teaching awareness and train the students. The methodological difficulties in implementing digital platforms from 2020-2022 in Angolan Higher Education and the adjustments made due to COVID-19 are still drawbacks for the appropriation of the knowledge to solve problems. <strong>Objective.</strong> To diagnose the current situation in the management of ICT in the HEIs of Angola. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The research was conducted with a descriptive project based on the qualitative and quantitative methodology, and the information was processed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software program. <strong>Results.</strong> From the application, processing, and interpretation of the questionnaires applied to specialists, it is possible to infer that the use of technological resources can improve good educational practices concerning the possibility of personalized attention to the students, considering the needs and potentialities observed in the process of formation. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The engaged participation of the researchers made it possible to conclude that it is essential to carry out pedagogical improvement courses in educational technology to achieve better levels of efficiency in developing the teaching-educational process in distance education (DE). <strong>Recommendation.</strong> The creation of conditions is needed for virtual teaching practices in Angolan HEIs.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-depth Analysis of Adultcentrism in the Educational Field: Tensions in the Face of Childhood Protagonism 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Siu Lay-Lisboa Fernanda Armijo-Rodríguez Camila Calderón-Olivares José Flores-Acuña Javier Mercado-Guerra <p class="p1"><strong>Aim.</strong> This research proposes deeply analyzing the interactions between adultcentrism and the exercise of childhood protagonism in educational contexts. <strong>Method.</strong> The methodological de-sign assumes elements from Participatory Action Research through dialogic strategies of in-formation production, such as graphic, spatial techniques, social theatre, discussion groups, and interviews of adults. Twenty-one people participated in this research project, four teach-ers and 15 students between 10 and 12 years old from a school in Chile. The dimensions of analysis were adultcentrism, protagonism of childhood, relationships between adulthood and childhood, and gender diversity. The data analysis was based on the process of open, axial, and selective coding, allowing the emergence of new categories. <strong>Results.</strong> The research find-ings show that the main category is the interaction between adultcentrism and protagonism. This category is expressed in 5 subcategories: power relations, organization and decision-making, diversities, treatment and affections, technologies in dispute, and perspective and gender stereotypes. <strong>Conclusions and recommendations.</strong> The research promotes more open and democratic classroom practices in the education field, allowing the teaching staff to gen-erate collaborative work co-constructed and situated to encourage childhood autonomy. In its practical implications, this research allows considering the opinions of childhood in the elabo-ration of the plans that schools in Chile must implement, such as school connivance and citi-zen training plans.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distance Basic Education in COVID-19 Time from the Analysis of the “Aprende en Casa” Strategy in Tlaxcala, México 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Adriana Carro-Olvera César Sánchez-Olavarría <p class="p1"><strong>Aim. </strong>This article aims to analyze the Aprende en casa [Learning from home] strategy designed by the Mexican Department of Education implemented in the State of Tlaxcala, México. <strong>Method.</strong> For this purpose, the study employed an exploratory, qualitative research design based upon the decoding of information, the identification of analysis categories, and the creation of factual and analytic matrixes. This study involved interviews with 28 sector heads and 210 supervisors held during the coordination of virtual meetings. <strong>Results</strong>. The main findings showed that most students participated in the Aprende en casa strategy. They also revealed that the students have poor use of information and communications technologies for learning; teachers and principals are in the same situation. This helped reach operative goals but not the substantive ones at the end of the 2019-2020 school year. WhatsApp was the most used tool to communicate the activities, thanks to the support of parents. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The use of technology was not enough to bring learning to students. We have to transition from emergency remote teaching to more inclusive distance education.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## University Didactics in Virtual Environments. Experience in Social Sciences 2022-08-30T12:55:59-06:00 Isabel Araya-Muñoz Jilma Majano-Benavides <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This article presents the empirical study conducted to identify the incorporation of technological means in virtual environments for teaching-learning processes of higher university education in social sciences at the National University of Costa Rica. This research is part of the academic research project titled <em>Analysis of the principles and conditions of scientific, technological, and innovation development in teaching-learning processes in subjects from three Bachelor’s degrees in Social Sciences</em> <span class="s1">(Araya Muñoz y Majano Benavides (2019-2021).</span> It is also part of the lecture titled <em>The use of technology and application of the virtual classroom in the didactic process in university courses</em> given at the International Learning Congress <span class="s1">(Araya Muñoz y Majano Benavides, 2019).</span> <strong>Methodology.</strong> The methodology is descriptive with a mixed methodological approach. Surveys are validated and applied to students and professors of the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS), and the subject programs and institutional regulations related to the object of study are reviewed. Sources, data, and the theoretical basis are triangulated. The statistical study of validity and reliability of the data supporting the analysis is incorporated. The research context was the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS) at the National University of Costa Rica. The study population is 220 students and 56 professors from eight schools with bachelor’s degrees at FSS. <strong>Results.</strong> The results include sufficient technological resources for learning activities. The institutional virtual classroom, Aula Virtual, offers training to users and is a strength in pedagogical processes. However, the incorporation of this resource in pedagogical mediation is limited, which shows little autonomous and collaborative work. The dependence of the student body on master classes prevails. Nevertheless, an increase in technological skills is reflected. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> It is concluded that the incorporation of technological means in didactics diversifies learning. Teachers must attend processes to strengthen their basic, technical, and technological skills to generate multiplier and innovative spaces with their peers and those who are part of their virtual teaching and learning communities.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the Spanish State and Andalusian Regional Regulations Regarding the LGTBI Collective in the Educational Framework 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Alejandro Granero-Andújar José Ramón Márquez-Díaz <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> Studying regulations can make visible the measures included in them about specific topics to discuss contributions of these measures and offer proposals to improve or enrich other regulatory measures. From this, this study aims to analyze the presence of Lesbian, Gay, Trans, Bisexual, and Intersexual (LGTBI) identities and corporalities in the Spanish state and Andalusian regional educational regulations, as well as the possibilities these regulations offer to work with this community in schools. <strong>Method.</strong> An analysis of the different regulatory measures approved for the LGTBI collective is conducted through a qualitative documentary study of the policies of the Spanish State and the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. <strong>Results.</strong> The results reveal the different approved political measures related to the object of study, describing in detail the contributions and repercussions regarding the LGTBI group in education. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> We conclude that, although the state regulations give a superficial treatment to the LGTBI group in the educational field, the Andalusian autonomous community does establish inclusive measures that enable the advancement of rights and attention to affective-sex-generic diversity within the educational dimension. Given this, the inclusion of the LGTBI collective in future state regulatory proposals is recommended. These proposals must advocate for a broad presence of this group in all the dimensions of the educational process. Likewise, they must consolidate the normative foundations that contribute to reducing their discrimination to achieve a more democratic and egalitarian educational practice.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Model of Teaching Practices for Results-based Accreditation in Engineering Careers 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Melissa Pizarro-Aguilar <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This work consists of a state of the question created to understand how teaching practices guide the development of the training process for the completion of the professional profile in engineering careers. <strong>Analysis.</strong> Writing this paper began with a bibliographic review of academic articles from the best-positioned journals in engineering education, considering publications from 2008 to 2018. Subsequently, in the selected publications, common lines of research are determined. In each of these, coincidences and differences in the theoretical and methodological approaches and the main findings are identified. <strong>Results.</strong> This article includes a discussion on the characterization of competencies or attributes in the engineering knowledge area and the identification of two important lines of research: the implementation of teaching practices for the development of specific competence and the understanding of the actors’ beliefs regarding the development of competencies or attributes. These lines are related since they can be considered as stages of a systematic improvement process for teaching practices based on the feedback obtained from the various perceptions of the actors. However, it is identified that they have not been addressed in an integrated manner from empirical research yet. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Based on the findings and good practices identified through the analyzed empirical research, a model of teaching practices can be proposed for result-based accreditation, which includes a cycle of integration of the attributes comprising an improvement process where three pillars stand out: theoretical bases, teaching and learning, and the evaluative framework.</p> 2022-08-21T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Look at How Philosophical Perspectives of Adult Education Shape the Practice at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Lena Barrantes-Elizondo <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Looking close at the philosophical orientation of institutions and educators allows the examination of whether teaching practice, in this case, higher education, is consistent with the purpose of education. <strong>Objective.</strong> In the interest of gaining a historical understanding of the role of the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (UNA) in adult education in Costa Rica, this essay aims to analyze philosophical perspectives by drawing on relevant written documentation. <strong>Discussion.</strong> This institution is currently one of the five public universities in Costa Rica and has a robust student funding system. Under its <em>necessary university</em> principle, students with different economic and social statuses have access to high-quality post-secondary education. Having a clear educational philosophy is vital as it helps examine the educators’ and the institution’s practice critically. This essay gives a broader understanding of the philosophical perspectives behind the teaching and learning practices proposed by UNA’s core guideline, the Pedagogical Model (PM). <strong>Conclusions.</strong> As final conclusions, it can be stated that this institution has lost its driving humanistic perspective, established in the first Organization Statute. In addition, on a sad note, Nuñez’s founding philosophical orientation and goals for UNA are partially accomplished since even though there is an accessible education for all, teaching and learning practices do not guarantee any commitment to social action and social reform.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The use of Indicators of Educational Quality: A Critical Discussion from the Chilean Case 2022-08-30T12:56:00-06:00 Carmelo Galioto <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Contemporary educational policies for school systems emphasize the evaluation of educational quality through results obtained from standardized tests or performance indicators. <strong>Purpose.</strong> To develop a problematization of the operationalization and standardization of the notion of quality in school education, taking as a case study the decision of the Chilean Educational Quality Agency to introduce indicators of personal and social development.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span><strong>Discussion</strong>. The essay uses the notion of audit culture from the socio-anthropological literature and the reflections of Hannah Arendt in order to problematize the use of indicators in the field of educational policies for primary and secondary schools. In the first instance, it is argued that these evaluation indicators are framed in what the scientific literature has defined as an “audit culture” and, in particular, in an aspect of it that has been coined as the “indicator game.” In the second instance, it is argued that these indicators are insufficient to account for personal and social development; this is shown by proposing a substantive definition of school education obtained from Hannah Arendt: a phenomenon that inserts the novelty represented by the students into the world. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> These measurement indicators of quality inevitably reduce the phenomenon to be measured. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the attention of educational policies to a substantive aspect such as personal and social development can be used to discuss what school education we are thinking about and designing.</p> 2022-07-05T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teacher Training in Science for Citizenship: A Proposal Inspired by the Reggio Emilia Philosophy 2022-08-30T12:56:44-06:00 Estefanía Pezoa-Carrasco Graciela Muñoz-Zamora <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Education for citizenship should be developed from early childhood, considering the knowledge, attitudes, and values required for participation. One of the aspects contributing to this is scientific literacy through inquiry, for which there must be teachers who can integrate this aspect into didactic designs to allow democratizing scientific knowledge and favor the centrality and participation of children in basic education. <strong>Objective.</strong> To contribute to developing scientific inquiry in the training of future elementary school teachers. <strong>Discussion.</strong> In this perspective, the Reggio Emilia philosophy can contribute from its principles to the initial training of basic education teachers. For this purpose, three relevant aspects to incorporate are the environment as a third educator, classroom projects, and the teaching staff as a researcher reflected in the pedagogical documentation. With this, it is sought that inquiry is integrated as a methodological approach to be addressed in the training of teachers, promoting learning from experience. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> In this sense, from the three elements reviewed, we conclude that the Reggio Emilia philosophy is presented as an opportunity to improve inquiry skills and their incorporation into the future practices of elementary school teachers.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##