Revista Electrónica Educare https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="http://www.cide.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="http://www.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE) en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Statement" href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1RfN-TdFEZbDzVuc7rRZs4_Zk9nPa_c3x/view" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</a></strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="https://creativecommons.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="http://www.una.ac.cr/educare_/../educare" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES" target="_blank" rel="noopener">/&nbsp;CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> High School Performance in the National Baccalaureate Tests in Regional Education Jurisdictions in Costa Rican Border Areas, 2013-2016 https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/11556 <p>n the frame of the Program Perfiles, Dinámicas y Desafíos de la Educación Costarricense, from the Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE), of the National University of Costa Rica, this article aims to open a space of national dialog and reflection about the standardized tests of the national baccalaureat (pruebas nacionales de bachillerato or PNB) for secondary education in Costa Rica, and the performance of secondary schools in border zones. Its specific goal is to analyze the results of these national tests of secondary education in Costa Rica as instruments to certify knowledge in the border zones of the country, with the intention to visualize advancements in education and their social repercussions. The analysis is based on the results of the PNB reported to the Education Ministry by the eight regional education authorities located in border zones from the north and south of the country, and their relation with the Social Development Index (Índice de Desarrollo Social or IDS) of the cantons under these authorities jurisdiction. The statistical data were worked in two dimensions, one related to the PNB results in terms of general promotion, and average grades; and the second one related to the IDS for 2013. The data analysis process let us show some transcendental conclusions regarding equity, educative inclusion, and social development conditions to take into consideration when interpreting PNB results in the country.</p> Cindy Vanessa Artavia-Aguilar Guillermo Calderón-Ramírez Andrea Ramírez-González Francisco González-Alvarado Pablo Chaverri-Chaves Eddy Cruz-Arroyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 23 3 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-3.1 What Do High School Students Learn About Physical Education? https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9781 <p class="RESUMEN">In the teaching and learning process, there are interactions between teachers, students, materials, experiences, and means; this forms a significant whole in which learning takes place. The students’ thinking about what they learn in class and the importance they give to that learning are factors that affect the attitude towards the Physical Education subject. The objective of this research was to study students’ beliefs and perceptions regarding learning in physical education classes. The research is a case study involving 93 students of 11<span class="CharOverride-9">th</span>&nbsp;grade, from an educational institution in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The information was collected through observation, a questionnaire, and focus groups. SPSS software was used for the information analysis of the questionnaire, and the Nvivo program, for focus groups and observation. The students consider that the main lessons they draw from the subject are the application of motor skills, the knowledge of the functioning of the body, and the learning of knowledge and application of sport’s rules. Most students believe that Physical Education subject should serve to improve health and fitness condition and learn values. These results should guide physical education with involvement in the cognitive field, as well as a value maker and improvement of human motor skills.</p> Didier Fernando Gaviria-Cortés Francisco Javier Castejón-Oliva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 23 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.23-3.2 Bullying: Detection Through the Sociometric Test and Prevention Through the Experiences Based on the Socioaffective Method https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9939 <p>Nowadays,<span class="CharOverride-9">&nbsp;</span><span lang="en-GB">bullying is one o<a id="_idTextAnchor001"></a>f the most common forms of violence at school. This article includes an experience in which sociometry is used as a methodology implemented to know the current relationships between students in the class (through a sociometric test and a sociometric matrix), along with qualitative research tools (field diary and observation guide), in order to develop a mixed methodology (a quantitative and qualitative research design). The results obtained outline the importance of implementing, in class, dynamics that work on empathy and social abilities and the resulting positive impact on the class.</span></p> Carolina Hamodi-Galán Yara De Benito-Brunet ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-11 2019-06-11 23 3 1 25 10.15359/ree.23-3.3 The Influence of Experience in the Modeling of Social Representations of the Family-School Relationship in Rural Educational Institutions in the Ñuble Region, Chile https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9850 <p class="RESUMEN ParaOverride-5">This work presents the influence of agents’ experience in modeling the representation they have of the family-school relationship in the rural context. The objective of the study is to recognize the social representations that teachers and families have regarding the family-school relationship. The methodology used corresponds to the qualitative design through the case study method; the data processing technique is the semi-structured interview. The research was conducted in 10 rural schools belonging to the Ñuble Region, Chile. A total of 16 teachers and 36 parents were interviewed, and the data was analyzed through semantic analysis. The results showed that the life experience of the agents influences the representation they have about the family-school relationship and the role each agent involved attributes to it. From the teaching staff, a distinction can be seen between the conceptions derived from the teaching experience, personal experiences, and the complete knowledge of the context. For their part, families recognize the influence of experience derived from the family life cycle, differentiating between first-time parents and those who are even responsible for the care of grandchildren. In conclusion, the influence of experience, as a modeler of the representations that teachers and families have regarding the family-school relationship and the role each subject has, comes from the confluence of the multiple experiences lived by the agents interviewed.</p> Héctor Cárcamo-Vásquez Pablo Méndez-Bustos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-12 2019-06-12 23 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.23-3.4 Chilean Graders’ Behaviors and Perceptions of a Foreign Language Reschooling Program Towards Verbal Feedback on Pronunciation https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9925 <p class="RESUMEN" lang="en-US"><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">This research study aims to provide graders of an EFL reschooling program with individual verbal feedback and analyze their behaviors and perceptions towards the intervention. This study follows an action research design conducted during three sessions in which 28 secondary school students had a dialogue with the teacher who commented on their pronunciation issues and provided with strategies in order to help them deal successfully with pronunciation issues. A field note and a semi-structured interview were used to collect data. The field note was used during the dialogue to observe students’ behavior towards the feedback; the semi-structured interview was implemented after the intervention in order to describe their perceptions towards the methodology and its effect on their learning process. Thematic analysis was used to identify certain patterns of meanings; the analysis showed findings leading to the conclusion that students felt more comfortable when facing speaking activities because of the practice and repetition during the individual verbal feedback stage. Future studies could include peer feedback, because this verbal feedback may be enhanced if students work in pairs. This type of strategy may favor discussion and clarification of doubts.</span></p> Sebastián Calisto-Miranda Mabel Ortiz-Navarrete ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 23 3 1 18 10.15359/ree.23-3.5 Trends in Methodological Designs in Indexed Publications on Job Satisfaction of University Professors https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10116 <p>This study aims to perform a systematic review of the trends of the methodological design used in research articles whose main theme is the job satisfaction of the university teaching staff. The trends on the research method, the condition of the measurement instrument, the techniques for the collection of information, the sampling techniques, and the statistical techniques used in the analysis are identified. After a systematic search in Proquest and Redalyc (bibliographyc databases), according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 49 articles published between 2000 and 2016 were analyzed. This review allowed us to identify that almost half of the articles selected belong to the last six years (44.9%), which reveals a great interest in the subject. The most frequent methodological approach is the quantitative one (89.8%), the adaptation of the instruments predominates (53.1%), and the psychometric properties of validity and reliability are mentioned at 42.9%. A probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling is used with the same frequency (36.7%); likewise, descriptive statistics are used in 83.3%. However, for the inferential analyses, there was greater use of parametric statistical tests than nonparametric ones. The results show that there are multiple ways to carry out the methodological design, both in the use of the data collection instrument and in the use of information analysis methods.</p> César Halley Limaymanta-Álvarez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 23 3 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-3.6 Curricular References for Decision-Making in Higher Education Study Plans https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10063 <p>This article aims to offer the curriculum managers of Higher Education institutions the conception of the university curriculum, the curricular references to be considered in the decision-making required for the reflective implementation of the curricula, and the challenges of the Higher Education before the demands of today’s society. Since this is a task involving contributions from the curricular theory and the discipline proper to the object of study that addresses a particular curriculum, the content becomes a tool that promotes, from the theoretical field, the transdisciplinary and dynamic interdisciplinary work; this work can contribute to the adoption of curricular approaches that support the conscious and renewed practice of Higher Education. The study presents the contributions and classification of 22 curricular approaches of specialists such as&nbsp;<a href="#_idTextAnchor009"><span class="CharOverride-8">Eisner and Wallance (1974),</span></a><span class="CharOverride-8">&nbsp;</span><a href="#_idTextAnchor020"><span class="CharOverride-8">Molina (1997),</span></a><span class="CharOverride-8">&nbsp;</span><a href="#_idTextAnchor014"><span class="CharOverride-8">Grundy (1998),</span></a><span class="CharOverride-8">&nbsp;</span><a href="#_idTextAnchor025"><span class="CharOverride-8">Posner (1998)</span></a><span class="CharOverride-8">&nbsp;</span>and&nbsp;<a href="#_idTextAnchor028"><span class="CharOverride-8">Sacristán (2010).</span></a>&nbsp;These specialists organize the knowledge according to different referents, and they are also updated according to new trends; this is because the university curriculum is subject to updating according to the needs of the social contexts in which it operates. Among the main findings, it is highlighted that the understanding of each curricular approach provides insights into the new curriculum proposals. These proposals are more related to the challenges posed by society and are necessary to move towards comprehensive professional profiles and real work opportunities. In addition, the study highlights that the new university study plans must contain the vision of the physical, social and socio-affective aspects with high levels of quality, equity, use of technologies, and a clear approach of the disciplines that promote the active participation of students, academics, employers and others advancing interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary curricular proposals. The main implication of the research is to provide scholars and researchers with a reference based on criteria of historical and current selection of curricular approaches that can be consulted in future studies on the quality of university professional training.</p> Evelyn Chen-Quesada Silvia Elena Salas-Soto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 23 3 1 31 10.15359/ree.23-3.7 The Student, the Teacher, and the Educational Context in the Representation of the Teacher in Training https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10092 <p>This research, located in the context of a regional university that trains teachers, has the objective of studying the representations future teachers have of the student figure, the teacher, and the school context. We opted for a methodology of qualitative type. The work was set in a dialogue area with 55 elementary pedagogy students who develop their professional practice processes in different contexts. From the semi-structured interview technique, with life story contributions, the participants narrated their experience. The results showed a complex teacher’s work, due to changes in the student profile, which represents clear opposition to the traditional concept of authority and to a school that reproduces the symbolic domination. The information and communication technologies (ICT) also affect the result: they put a strain on the comprehension of the teacher task and the rationality with which this task is assumed. The study opens a discussion space for the university institution to revise the formation process of future teachers, allowing developing the required skills for a better insertion in school contexts with increasing demands.</p> Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez Ximena Elizabeth Jara-Amigo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 23 3 1 21 10.15359/ree.23-3.8 Programming Technologies for Social Inclusion With Scratch: Computational Practices in a Teacher’s Professional Development Course https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10187 <p>In recent years, there is an interest in developing practices, concepts and perspectives of computational thinking and programming in schools. Therefore, it is crucial to train teachers in these subjects. However, little is known about the process that teachers follow when approaching these new contents. In this context, the present exploratory and intrinsic case study aims to analyze the computational thinking practices developed by a group of 13 teachers while participating in a professional development workshop, where they created technologies for social inclusion (TIS) by programming with Scratch. The analysis of the different data collected during this pilot experience (surveys, productions carried out by the participants, audio recordings, etc.) evidences a close articulation between computational practices and programming of hypermedia projects that addresse participants’ contextualized problematics. These results show that professional development related to programming was proposed as a process close to the day-to-day reality of teachers, highlighting the importance of generating mediated and situated educational practices. Designing a training path to create TIS appears, in this sense, as a valid option for the teaching of programming and the development of computational thinking, in line with previous studies that proposed professional development courses for teachers from contextualized proposals, and using significant examples in a community and collaborative framework of reflection and exchange.</p> Natalia Monjelat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-03 2019-05-03 23 3 1 25 10.15359/ree.23-3.9 Preferences of Students of Free Courses on the Modalities of Fitness or Wellness According to Sex https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10044 <p>The object of the present study was to determine, according to sex, the preference in courses registered by students, regarding the modalities of Fitness or Wellness in the Free-courses Programs of the Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida (CIEMHCAVI) of the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. Procedure: The research was conducted under a retrospective approach, with data obtained from records from the years 2012 to 2016. Participants: a sample of 2112 students aged 17 to 62 years and 28.3 ± 7.8 years, (1181 men and 931 women), enrolled in one or more of the Free-courses Programs taught between 2012 and 2016 at CIEMHCAVI/UNA. The variables studied were gender, age, course/s registered, and approval or disapproval. Results: There are statistically significant differences (χ 2 = 141.916, p = &lt;.001) in the registration preferences of the modality (Fitness or Wellness) according to sex, but no differences found between quartiles of ages (X2(3) = 2,939., p=&lt;.40) or gender classification in the percentages of approval or failure of the courses (χ 2 = .064, p = &lt;.800).</p> Irina Anchía-Umaña Ashley Elizondo-Monge Steve Monge-Poltronieri Inés Revuelta-Sánchez Braulio Sánchez-Ureña Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Vargas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 23 3 1 14 10.15359/ree.23-3.10 Curricular Proposal on a Blended Approach and an Informative Multimedia for Didactic Resources for the Teaching of English Course https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10310 <p>This research conducted in order to design a curricular proposal for the course Didactic Resources for the Teaching of English, based on a blended approach and informative multimedia. The methodology was structured in two stages: the construction of a new curricular proposal to conduct a blended course based on the conceptualization and design of technological resources; also, the production of informative multimedia for the implementation of didactic technological resources according to the curricular proposal. A process of evaluation research was carried out to validate the proposal and evaluate the multimedia; for that reason, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis (for students taking the course at the moment) and two questionnaires (for English and Graphic Arts professors) were used for the data collection. The analysis identified that the curricular proposal has a series of strengths and opportunities. Likewise, the multimedia material is considered to be a relevant didactic tool for the inclusion of ICT in English teaching. Therefore, the research process showed the accomplishment of an effective new design for a curricular proposal based on a blended approach; it also showed that the multimedia represented an innovation form for the didactic resources implemented in the English learning process.</p> Silvia Saborío-Taylor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-07-29 2019-07-29 23 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.23-3.11 The CASE as a Device of School Practices https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10173 <p>In the last 15 years, the Chilean educational system has created new normative and legal bodies to furthering inclusion, avoid discrimination, and improve school coexistence. These laws directly address schools, which, from their own translations, also generate their own educational practices. The objective of this research was to comprehend how schools translate and articulate these policies. Through an ethnography of devices&nbsp;<a href="#_idTextAnchor040"><span class="CharOverride-7">(Sisto y Zelaya, 2013),</span></a>interviews and observations took place in two schools that have a specific team of professionals to articulate these policies. The results show that, from the practices of the teams, a device called CASE emerges as a result; this device is an expression that both schools need and is related to students who have behavioralor learning problems. The CASE, as a device, organizes the teams work, mainly around the detection and support of students, evidence gathering, and safeguards facing the audit. The discussions revolve around the scope of this device and the effects it generates in the school community.</p> Lorena Ramírez-Casas del Valle René Valdés-Morales ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-11 2019-05-11 23 3 1 23 10.15359/ree.23-3.12 Methodological Proposal to Conduct a Conglomerate Self-Assessment Process in University Careers https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10234 <p>The purpose of this arti<a id="_idTextAnchor000"></a>cle was to systematize the methodological experience lived in the conglomerate process of self-evaluation of university graduate careers, which are in different stages of evaluation and have two executing units. This proposal includes the phases and stages that have all the methodological details, including design of an action plan, permanent collective meetings for the systematization and decision-making, and design of tools to standardize the accreditation process by conglomerate mainly. As a result of this methodological application, the form of work established by the commission is concluded as a successful strategy; it allowed a group cohesion, sense of belonging, and appropriation of the process. This article can be used as a document to guide the academic activities of self-evaluation and improvement in careers that have a high degree of affinity between them, either from their object of study or educational process, in order to be accredited.</p> María Morera-Castro Christian Azofeifa-Mora Viviana Gómez-Barrantes Ana Azofeifa-Lizano Daniel Rojas-Valverde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 23 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.23-3.13 Opinion of Future Primary Education Teachers on the Implementation of Mobile Learning in the Classroom https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10564 <p>&nbsp;Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are a trend implemented in the educational field. In particular, the universalization in the use of mobile devices has made possible its application in different educational stages. The purpose of this paper has been to know the opinion of the future teachers of Primary Education about the implementation of mobile learning in the classroom. A quantitative design methodology was used to describe the reality observed in a sample of university students of the degree in Primary Education of the University of Granada. Likewise, a questionnaire prepared ad hoc was used as a data collection instrument, based on a Likert scale of 4 levels. The analysis of the data has been made using the statistical analysis software SPSS and AMOS. Among the results, the positive perception of the students on the incorporation of the mobile learning methodology in Primary Education is highlighted, as well as the adequacy in the use of emerging mobile technologies such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. Finally, different implications and recommendations on the application of mobile devices in the classroom are discussed, including the generalization of these resources in the classroom, reticence that still exists on the part of some teachers and the improvement of student learning.</p> Francisco Javier Hinojo-Lucena Inmaculada Aznar-Díaz María Pilar Cáceres-Reche José María Romero-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 23 3 1 17 10.15359/ree.23-3.14 Innovative Experience Related to Didactics of Early Childhood Motricity: From University Classroom to Early Childhood Education Classroom https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10120 <p class="RESUMEN" lang="en-US"><span class="Bold CharOverride-9" lang="en-GB">The relationship between the university and early childhood classrooms seems to be the main focus during the practicum, leaving behind a possible interrelation between the university curriculum and the reality of education. The aim of the study was the analysis, evaluation, creation, and implementation of an experience focused on the didactics of child motor skills, through the participation of early childhood education teachers, university students, and university teachers. First, the students received a theoretical corpus on the main curricular perspectives of didactics of movement, from an innovative experience that unites psychomotor classes at Valencian schools with the subject&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-10" lang="en-GB">Teaching of Physical Education of Early Childhood Education&nbsp;</span><a href="#_idTextAnchor019"><span class="CharOverride-11">(Universitat de Valencia, 2017a),</span></a><span class="Bold CharOverride-9" lang="en-GB">&nbsp;complemented with practical training in musical movement. After, the university students elaborated a report on their reflection and observations. In this document, they related the theoretical and practical knowledge from the university classroom with the psychomotricity experience in classrooms. One of the conclusions drawn was about how the teacher facilitates the interaction through the use of materials, the attention of the contents of theoretical perspectives, and the relation to the theoretical knowledge of the structure of the session; this conclusion was drawn from attending to the categories contextualized. We demonstrated the importance of innovating continuously; on the one hand, innovation is important to bring the university classrooms closer to the real education contexts of the early childhood education classrooms, and, on the other, to promote the teaching education process of early childhood education teachers.</span></p> Vladimir Martínez-Bello María del Mar Bernabé-Villodre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 23 3 1 26 10.15359/ree.23-3.15 Psychometrics Properties an Instrument for Gauge the Reflective Thinking in University Students https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10043 <p>The research determined psychometrics properties of an instrument to gage the reflective thinking in the formative development of university students. For this research 263 university students participated, of which 220 (83.7%) were females (<span class="CharOverride-5">M</span>&nbsp;age= 20,&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">DE</span>= 1.5 years old), and 43 (16.3%) were males (M age= 20, DE= 2.5 years old).<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;</span>The final result empirically supports scale to gage different factors,&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">reflective compression, support reflective processes and demonstrations of reflective process (X</span><span class="CharOverride-11">2</span><span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;= 20.08, gl= 8, *p &lt; .001; X</span><span class="CharOverride-11">2</span><span class="CharOverride-5">/gl= 1.397; CFI= .96; RMSEA= .039; GFI= .90)</span>. In conclusion, the instrument can be used on the evaluation of reflective thinking thought in university students.</p> Angélica Crespo-Cabuto María Teresa González-Frías Esthela Jacqueline Madrid-López ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-17 2019-05-17 23 3 1 13 10.15359/ree.23-3.16 Social Nerworks Dangers: How to educate our childs in cibersecurity https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10041 <p>This research aims to analyze the state of the art in the country of the knowledge of dangers of online social networks and how to protect minors through good cybersecurity practices.Through a bibliographic review, different topics related to the management of social networks and dangers young people in Costa Rica are exposed to. Security and privacy terms are evaluated, as well as the role of parents, and some elements of Cybersecurity of the most popular Social Networks among underage people. Among the most important findings, it was determined that the greatest dangers of social networks for minors are harassment, cyberbullying, grooming, sexting and addiction, which, without an adequate education in Cybersecurity, make children vulnerable. The most popular social networks online among children and adolescents are&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">Facebook, Instragram, Whatsapp,&nbsp;</span>and<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;SnapChat</span>, and each one is governed by a series of conditions; these media also offer a series of tools to ensure privacy and data security, but they must be configured and this is basically what we know as Cybersecurity. Educating children in cybersecurity is a new challenge for parents: they must know and be prepared to teach their children on how to protect themselves from these new dangers.</p> Cristel Astorga-Aguilar Ileana Schmidt-Fonseca ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-05-17 2019-05-17 23 3 1 24 10.15359/ree.23-3.17 Analysis of Teaching Methods That Outstanding Professors Use in Social Science https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10157 <p>The study aims to analyze teaching methods used by primary school teachers recognized as outstanding by the Chilean Ministry of Education from the perspective provided by key social concepts. From a qualitative point of view, the study uses a focus group as an initial information gathering technique and, mainly, focuses on non-participating observation of history, geography, and social science classes. The group is made up of teachers from the school system who are recognized as outstanding. The data are analyzed from the perspective of key social concepts, in this case: time, space, coexistence, identity and change, and from the teaching methods used. The main conclusion of the study is that the teaching models show a traditional perspective, mainly associated with an expository method, a methodological option that does not rule out the student body, which, from a participatory role, cedes the protagonism to the teaching staff in their role as a guide to learning.</p> Marta Castañeda-Meneses ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 23 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.23-3.18 Perception on cultural ecosystem services associated with the native forest by a university group of students of pedagogy https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10154 <p>This research aimed to analyze the perceptions that have a group of 15 teachers in initial training regarding the cultural ecosystem services associated with the native forest. The participants were students of the careers of Pedagogy in Basic General Education (generations of 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016), and of Pedagogy in primary education with an honorable mention (the generation of 2017) from the Universidad Católica del Maule-Chile. Two qualitative working techniques used in the study were the focus group and the revised identity drawing. The results showed that in pedagogy students alternative visions coexist with respect to ecosystem services; the participating students relate these services to recycling topics and government institutions. The results also showed the importance that participants assign both to the innumerable benefits and contributions that ecosystem services deliver to human beings and to native forests and their cultural ecosystem services as pedagogical spaces at the service of transversal learning in the development of basic education students.</p> Cristián Aguilar-Correa Camila Valencia-Fuentes Maite Huentemilla-Rebolledo Daniela Valderrama-González Ángela Rojas-Correa Mackarena Méndez-Contreras Carla Tapia-Hernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 23 3 1 24 10.15359/ree.23-3.19 Competencies of the Rehabilitation Counselor to Work with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients (LGB) https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/10155 <p class="RESUMEN ParaOverride-5" lang="en-US">Rehabilitation counselors must provide services to diverse populations including lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals. This quantitative study of descriptive exploratory type auscultated the competencies of a group of rehabilitation counselors to work with the LGB population. The sample consisted of 118 rehabilitation counseling professionals who were recruited utilizing a convenience sampling technique. The instruments administered were a sociodemographic data questionnaire and the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competence Scale (SOCCS),&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7">(Bidell, 2005).</span>&nbsp;Variables were analyzed with the Spearman t-test and correlation. The participants showed moderate competences in the subscales of the SOCCS (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and in the overall average of the Scale. No statistically significant result was identified in terms of gender variables and the work scenario of the counselors. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between years of working experience in rehabilitation counseling, the skills and attitudes subscales. These results may be used for the development of continuing education programs for rehabilitation counselors with the aim of improving the well-being of their LGB clients.</p> Raúl Rivera-Colón Maximino Ramos-Reyes Robinson Vázquez-Ramos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/cr/deed.es_ES 2019-06-04 2019-06-04 23 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.23-3.20