Revista Electrónica Educare <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong>Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;In all cases, it is understood that the opinions issued are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position and opinion of Educare, CIDE or Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</p> <p class="p1">5. The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">/&nbsp;CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> Implementation of an Institutional Mathematics Curriculum: From Expectation to Reality <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This research aimed to analyze the implementation of the mathematics curriculum of a private primary school located in an urban area of Costa Rica. <strong>Methodology.</strong> It was developed under the post-positivist paradigm, with a mixed design that used content analysis and descriptive statistics. <strong>Analysis of results.</strong> The review of teachers’ didactic plans, student notebooks, and applied written tests allowed a comparison with the institutional mathematics curriculum and generated inputs for decision-making. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is determined that, during the implementation, the teachers dedicate much time to the area of numbers, neglecting the other mathematical areas. This is evidenced in the number of items included in the written tests. <strong>Recommendations.</strong> The main recommendation is associated with adjusting the plans for the third school period of that year to correct the problem found; participant observation is also proposed as a complementary tool for future assessment.</p> Ricardo Poveda-Vásquez Marianela Zumbado-Castro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 27 1 1 20 10.15359/ree.27-1.14531 Citizen Science in Promoting Chemical-Environmental Awareness of Students in the Context of Marine Pollution by (Micro)Plastics <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>To evaluate how the tasks carried out by the students in the scope of the PVC educational citizen science project for monitoring the quality of coastal waters contributed to raising their awareness of the problems of marine litter, in particular, the pollution of the ocean by plastics and microplastics, and the importance of chemistry in society. <strong>Methods.</strong> The project stage here presented consisted of six asynchronous tasks, conducted with digital mediation through the Moodle platform. The project took place in the 2018/2019 school year and involved 442 students and nine chemistry teachers from a middle school in the northern coastal region of Portugal. Data on the impact on students’ awareness of the contexts considered were collected from the outputs the students produced in each task. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. <strong>Discussion. </strong>From this analysis emerged indicators of the PVC project’s positive contribution to raising students’ awareness of the pollution of marine environments by (micro)plastics, as well as raising awareness of the role of chemistry in society. The students expressed positive opinions toward this science and recognized its links with other areas of science and technology. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> Thus, it was found that citizen science projects significantly promote students’ awareness of chemical-environmental subjects by exploring current and relevant contexts.</p> José Luís Araújo Carla Morais João Carlos Paiva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-20 2022-09-20 27 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.27-1.15845 Design, Implementation, and Results of a Workshop for Students Failing University Physics in Chemical Engineering <p class="p1"><strong>Aim.</strong> To design a psycho-pedagogical intervention (workshop) based on didactic planning, articulated to the 5 E model. It is an intervention different from what has been done historically in the Physics Academy of a Mexican public university. <strong>Methodology.</strong> This research project had a descriptive and ethnographic approach. Various instruments were used for data collection, including a diagnostic test of classical mechanics for engineering with content validity, the ADHD Rating Scale test, the Big Five personality factors theory, resumes, and direct interviews. These data were analyzed with a methodological triangulation. <strong>Results.</strong> The intervention had 100% approval since empirical evidence shows that didactic planning is useful and stimulating. This planning is based on the 5 E model, specifically for the aforementioned workshop, with activities with high pedagogical content and the intensive use of learning and knowledge technologies. Also, the traits and study habits of participants were characterized. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> According to the ADHD Rating Scale, presumably, the student body does not report ADHD; inattention markers stand out from this instrument, and as a result of the five-factor theory, there are no indications of the responsibility trait. Thus, the psycho-pedagogical intervention favors strengthening study habits in the lagging student body.</p> Fabiola Escobar-Moreno Mario Humberto Ramírez-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 27 1 1 25 10.15359/ree.27-1.14275 Teacher Actions: The Influence on Entrepreneurial Behavioral Characteristics of Students <p class="p1"><strong>Aims.</strong> This study aimed to identify the activities teachers from a Brazilian public higher education institution developed to analyze how these activities influenced undergraduate students’ entrepreneurial behavioral characteristics (EBCs). <strong>Method.</strong> The study applied a mixed method; the quantitative approach used the EBCs measurement instrument (Mansfield et al., 1987), analyzed with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), prioritizing the most important EBCs in the perception of 792 students. The qualitative approach implemented a semi-structured interview script and content analysis. This approach identified the activities teachers developed and characterized as distinct according to students’ perception and their relationship with the EBCs. <strong>Discussion.</strong> Thus, it was possible to identify that practical activities and those aimed at student autonomy, directed towards reality, with correlations between disciplines, and with interactive participation, dialogue, favorable environment and learning through experience, converge to developing the entrepreneurial characteristics of the students and are being carried out in the classroom. It was also found that commitment was the most evident characteristic. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It can be concluded that the institution presents a promising scenario to develop entrepreneurial education. However, the activities currently carried out in the establishment are not efficient or sufficient since, at the same time, as the existence of entrepreneurial activities was proved, the students presented some unsatisfactory EBCs. Therefore, a longitudinal cut is suggested to analyze the EBCs and better understand the students’ evolution with the insertion of these practices in the classroom.</p> Silvana Bortoluzzi-Balconi Deoclécio Junior Cardoso-da Silva Italo Fernando Minello Luis Felipe Dias-Lopes Luciano Amaral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 24 10.15359/ree.27-1.14455 Learning Styles, Gender and Academic Performance in Students in the Fundamentals of Economics Course <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This article aimed to analyze the relationship between learning styles, gender, and students’ academic performance in the Fundamentals of Economics course at the Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar (UTB). <strong>Methodology.</strong> The study used a quantitative approach with a descriptive-correlational research design. It administered the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire (CHAEA) to 166 students. The data was processed with the Stata (version 13.0) statistical package for Windows. Two models were designed and applied to establish correlations and probability: a linear probability model and a probabilistic probit model. <strong>Results.</strong> Statistical significance is evident at 10% with respect to the preferences of active and reflective styles. Similarly, there is a possible association between the preference for reflective style and the increased chances for students to pass the course. Conversely, the probability of passing the course is lower when the preference is for the active style. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study evidenced the relationship between gender and pragmatic learning style. It also showed that students with preferences for the reflective learning style have a higher probability of improving their academic performance in the Fundamentals of Economics course. In addition, those who prefer the active learning style are less likely to enhance their academic performance.</p> Jorge Alvis-Arrieta William Arellano-Cartagena Jorge Muñiz-Olite ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 17 10.15359/ree.27-1.13905 Predictors of Academic Performance among Entering Freshmen at a Private University in Lima <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> One of the most significant indicators of quality in the academic endeavor of educational institutions is the academic performance of their student population. However, its study is complex, given its multi-causal nature. In view of the above, the general aim of this research was to identify those variables that could impact the academic performance (success or failure) of students admitted into a private university in Lima. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Two samples were taken corresponding to entrants of the two semesters of the academic year, for a total of 5040 participants (3515 from the first semester and 1889 from the second semester). The instruments applied were the Learning Strategies Questionnaire <span class="s1">(Martínez Guerrero, 2004),</span> the Vocational Self-Efficacy Scale <span class="s1">(Carbonero Martín y Merino Tejedor, 2002),</span> the Degree Maturity Questionnaire <span class="s1">(Álvarez González et al., 2007),</span> and the Test Anxiety Questionnaire <span class="s1">(Valero Aguayo, 1999).</span> <strong>Results.</strong> As part of the results of the logistic regression analysis, it was found that the variables that best predicted a failing weighted average were the following: a higher number of credits enrolled in leveling courses, male sex, lower score in self-efficacy beliefs, negative attitude towards the study program, a lower score in achievement motivation, and a higher score in exam anxiety. <strong>Discussion. </strong>It is concluded that academic performance can be explained from a set of motivational, emotional, and vocational variables, as well as some sociodemographic variables such as gender. Based on the results obtained, it is recommended to direct preventive actions toward those psychological and demographic aspects that are somehow associated with the performance of university entrants.</p> Mirian Grimaldo Eduardo Manzanares-Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 14 10.15359/ree.27-1.14283 Hyperspecialization and Imagenology: Perceptions and Reflections of Working and Academic Worlds <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This research aimed to analyze the student, academic, and professional perception of the hyperspecialization in imaging in Chile and its possible threat/opportunity in undergraduate training. <strong>Method.</strong> This is a qualitative approach study of an exploratory type with descriptive elements. The study subjects were ninety-five people between professionals and students. The study conducted a semi-structured interview, and established macro-categories, whose data were recorded using a textuality matrix and qualitative frequencies of own elaboration. <strong>Results.</strong> 64% of the interviewees do not know the concept of hyperspecialization in imaging, versus 36% of those who know it. However, once this concept was explained, 56% of the interviewed group was considered hyperspecialized in some area of professional performance, versus 44% who was not. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The study found a perception of closure of the imaging discipline towards other disciplines; this discipline must be work-related to other areas of knowledge. However, the interviews revealed that the optimism and acceptance environment of the disciplinary bonding phenomenon stands out; the interviewed group perceives a better bond between the educational and working worlds.</p> Andrés Cabezas-Cabrera Nicolás Díaz-Barrera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 11 10.15359/ree.27-1.13944 Curricular and Practical Considerations on Teacher Professional Development in Initial Teacher Training <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This article presents the results of a study, whose objective was to analyze the teacher professional development approach in its articulation with practical training, from the appropriation of teacher trainers and graduates, in four majors of a Chilean state university, located in the Valparaiso region. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Using a hermeneutic methodology of the interpretive paradigm of qualitative research, the study conducted a field work implying the content analysis of 37 documents –ministerial and institutional– and 16 semi-structured interviews with heads of degree departments, teachers of practice training and graduates. <strong>Results.</strong> Based on the methodological approach of grounded theory, the study analyzed the information collected and showed, as results, that the inicial training space presents guidelines in its institutional document system. These guidelines address the normatively established framework on teachers’ professional development, which do not materialize in the practical space of the majors, since, from the unified analysis of the discourse of interviewees, it can be argued that there is a curricular disarticulation that replicates a traditional training model from which knowledge is fragmented through the instrumentalization of pedagogical formation.</p> Javiera Camus-Camus Javier Vergara-Núñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 20 10.15359/ree.27-1.14372 Education in Sexuality and Equality: Needs in the Initial Training of Teachers in Spain <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Sexuality and equality education are considered areas of relevant pedagogical research and intervention within current educational contexts in view of the violence and inequalities derived from the patriarchal system. <strong>Aims.</strong> This paper presents the main results of a research study that seeks to analyze the competence in sexuality and equality of university students during teacher training in Spain (Castilla la Mancha University). <strong>Method.</strong> For this, the study used a quantitative methodology and administered a nine-dimension questionnaire to 371 students. <strong>Results.</strong> The study revealed the weak acquisition of competence in sexuality and equality and the persistence of stereotyped images of sexualities. Furthermore, these findings show that future teachers have a weak equality-based professional practice due to an educational approach that lacks a gender perspective. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The main conclusions highlight the evident formative needs in sexuality and equality and the absence of transforming feminist knowledge. All this can affect the development of quality education in sexuality and equality in students’ future educational practices.</p> María Teresa Bejarano-Franco Irene Martínez-Martín Montserrat Blanco-García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 16 10.15359/ree.27-1.14293 Attitudes Towards Mathematics in Future Teachers: EAHM-U Scale Colombian Adaptation <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Positive and negative attitudes influence the teaching-learning processes of mathematics, so this study focused on analyzing the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Mathematics Scale (EAHM-U) in Colombian university students to provide a context-adjusted and truly validated measurement tool. <strong>Method.</strong> An instrumental design was used with 446 undergraduate mathematics students to analyze the factor structure and internal consistency of the instrument scores. <strong>Results.</strong> a 13-item instrument with two dimensions called benefit from mathematics and difficulty in learning mathematics was obtained. <strong>Discussion</strong>. The modified scale presents adequate psychometric qualities, favorable levels of reliability in the scores, and indicators of replicability, suggesting that the items measure each dimension appropriately.</p> José Hernando Ávila-Toscano Leonardo José Vargas-Delgado Marien Fernanda Alonso-Miranda Jean Carlos De La Cruz-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 1 1 18 10.15359/ree.27-1.14302 Emotional Intelligence: Association With Negative Emotions and job Performance in University Teachers <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> Our aim was to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence, negative emotions, and job performance, and the level of these variables in university teaching staff. <strong>Method. </strong>It is a basic, descriptive, simple correlational transactional research; the complete Baron ICE:NA emotional intelligence test, the inventory of emotional regulation skills and the job performance questionnaire were used with a sample of 75 teachers, average age 45 years, in two universities in Peru. Frequencies and Pearson’s correlation were used in the analysis. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The results show a positive association between emotional intelligence and job performance; on the other hand, emotional intelligence and job performance are negatively associated with negative emotions. In addition, the level found in emotional intelligence is balanced, regular in negative emotions and good for job performance. The study determines that, if negative emotions are regulated, it would improve the emotional intelligence and job performance of teachers.</p> William Castro-Paniagua Abdías Chávez-Epiquén José Carlos Arévalo-Quijano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 17 10.15359/ree.27-1.14391 Understanding Punitive Practices in School Coexistence in Chile: Meanings and Uses in the Voices of Protagonists <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> In recent decades, school coexistence has become relevant for educational research and legislation in Latin America. However, in Chile and other countries, educational and promotional approaches coexist with other narrow ones of a punitive type, which individualize, prosecute, and exclude school conflicts. <strong>Goal.</strong> The objective of this study was to understand the meaning and use of punitive practices in Chilean schools. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Through a qualitative study with an emphasis on participatory methodologies, four analysis tables were held with representatives from the microlevel (students, parents), mesolevel (teaching and non-teaching professionals), and macrolevel (executers of Chilean educational policy at the regional level); they were analyzed using the content analysis technique. <strong>Results.</strong> The findings show that punitive practices are justified as a means to cushion the effects of an educational policy that pushes for better school results, insofar as their regulated use would allow schools to exclude those students not achieving good results from the classroom. In addition, understandings of the punitive practices associated with an authoritarian school culture that has a dictatorial past as a legacy are built, where the figure of the teacher stands as a severe but loving pedagogical authority. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> Punitive practices are understood within a gradual process, where the sanction begins when the training action had no effect. The implications of these meanings for educational action are discussed, problematizing the meaning of pedagogical authority in a culture that positively values punitive action.</p> Sebastián Ortiz-Mallegas Verónica López Rene Valdés Cristopher Yáñez-Urbina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.27-1.14375 Satisfaction and Stress in Teachers by Cause of Remote Activities due to COVID-19 contingency <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This study aims to identify stress, satisfaction, and willingness to continue using technological tools, as well as the main physical and emotional affections when carrying out distance learning activities presented by a sample of teachers of the primary, middle, and high school levels, as well as higher education, that taught distance learning in Mexico. <strong>Method.</strong> It was based on a non-experimental, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A questionnaire made in Google Forms was administered to 122 teachers. <strong>Results.</strong> The main results show that 25% of the sample presents low satisfaction; 30% show stress when carrying out their activities remotely; and 40% do not offer a willingness to continue using technological tools for their classes, being the schools of basic level the most affected. The main physical affections referred to were muscle aches, headaches and sleep problems, and emotional conditions related to anxiety, sadness, fear, and uncertainty. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>It is suggested to develop programs to identify and support the emotional affections of the teaching staff due to their remote work.</p> Francisco Javier Robles-Ojeda Iris Xóchitl Galicia-Moyeda Alejandra Sánchez-Velasco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 17 10.15359/ree.27-1.14499 Future Primary School Teachers’ Conceptions About Parents’ Participation in School <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> This article aims to unveil future elementary education teachers’ conceptions of parents’ participation in school. <strong>Method.</strong> From a qualitative approach, the study was conducted in four universities in the Ñuble and Bío Bío regions in Chile. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 40 elementary education students. The discourses were analyzed using the semantic structural analysis technique. <strong>Results</strong>. As main findings, a whole of beliefs can be pointed out, from which parental participation is valued in the way it contributes to achieving academic objectives, both in terms of attitudinal modeling and reinforcement of curricular content. From there, the prevailing conception is grasped, which places participation as an indicator of parental commitment as long as it does not interfere with the work of the teaching staff. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The need to incorporate the theme from the initial training of teachers is evidenced and to recognize the diversity of family models and strategies that guide the performance of the educational and parental role.</p> Héctor Cárcamo-Vásquez Verónica Gubbins-Foxley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 19 10.15359/ree.27-1.14508 How did you Help the Student to Solve the Problem? Analysis of the Strategies Used by Academic Writing Tutors <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This research aims to study peer tutoring focused on academic writing to categorize and describe the strategies that a group of tutors from a private Latin American university employs to support students’ academic literacy development. <strong>Method.</strong> We conducted a qualitative diary study, in which we analyzed 203 diary entries from 13 tutors, following the constant comparative analysis method proposed by grounded theory. <strong>Results.</strong> Eleven categories emerged from data that can be grouped into two major categories: collaborative writing strategies and strategies for the development of metacognition in writing. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> We described and categorized diverse tutorial strategies that can be explicitly taught during tutor training programs to promote the development of academic writing skills in less advanced students.</p> Alejandra Andueza-Correa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 19 10.15359/ree.27-1.14000 Climate Change in Educational Experiences of University Teachers <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> To explore and analyze the possibilities of integrating climate change (CC) in higher-level educational experiences with teachers from the Universidad Veracruzana (UV), at the Poza Rica-Tuxpan campus, Mexico. Due to its geographical location, the region is exposed to extreme hydrometeorological phenomena; there is physical and social vulnerability. <strong>Method.</strong> The study consisted of group interviews with teachers. They inquired about the threats associated with CC, identified them in their region, and how they approach the CC phenomenon in their academic activity and teaching practice. The dimension of attitudes from social representations theory is retaken as a substantive category; risk, vulnerability, and social resilience as formal categories were used as data-gathering tools in the study region. For the group interviews, a semi-structured guide was developed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using the content analysis technique. <strong>Results.</strong> Participants identify and address CC and other threats associated with this phenomenon in their educational experiences. A teaching practice committed to the environmental problem of its own context is recognized. Moreover, the link with other social, municipal, and community actors, who collaborate in educational practices to reduce vulnerabilities, promote risk management, and advance in the process of co-building social resilience, considering CC adaptation and mitigation measures. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Educational action, thus, contributes to climate action, strengthening individual and collective capacities that are undoubtedly necessary to stop the current climate crisis.</p> Ana Lucía Maldonado-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 17 10.15359/ree.27-1.14345 Initial Literacy: Pedagogical Decisions and Definitions of a Teacher to Promote Oral and Written Language in an Indigenous Preschool <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This article aims to describe the initial literacy processes promoted in an indigenous preschool located in Baja California, Mexico, attended by indigenous children. <strong>Methodology.</strong> A qualitative study with an ethnographic design was conducted. Participant observation in the classroom and a semi-structured interview with a teacher were carried out in order to deepen the authors’ understanding of the teacher’s decisions in teaching written language. Once collected, the data were transcribed and analyzed using the qualitative content analysis technique <span class="s1">(Mayring, 2000). </span><strong>Results.</strong> The main findings indicate that the participant prioritized activities for teaching the writing of the proper name. Hence, she granted insufficient reading spaces and brief situations for the use of oral language. In addition, the use of Spanish prevailed in teaching and communication, and the Mixtec indigenous language was used for ritual and cultural purposes. In general, the activities for teaching written language implemented by the participant were based on her interpretation of the official program of studies. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The teacher’s inclination to teach conventions of reading and writing words was observed. The teaching activities unevenly provoked the learning of the written language among the students. In addition, she used Spanish as the language of instruction and did not incorporate the indigenous language regularly. The teacher’s teaching decisions are related to the enrollment of her group, the academic performance detected, the linguistic diversity present, and the demands of the school curriculum.</p> Glenda Delgado-Gastélum María Guadalupe Tinajero-Villavicencio Alma Cecilia Carrasco-Altamirano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 27 1 1 18 10.15359/ree.27-1.14464 Station Rotation: An Experience Report of a Teaching-Learning Proposal in Youth and Adult Education <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The objective of this investigation was to verify the possibilities and potentialities of the use of active methodologies (AM), with a focus on rotation by stations, in Youth and Adult Education (YAE). The study also aimed to suggest AM as a proposal that collaborates with quality in teaching-learning and can contribute to students becoming autonomous subjects. Since it is an audience that needs more attention from researchers in the area of education, from this the practice in question was carried out in a six-class municipal school with 112 students in the center-west of Goiás. The class chosen for the practice has 28 students enrolled, and two are from Inclusive Education. <strong>Methodology. </strong>In the data collection, we used questionnaires, and the data collected were analyzed in a discursive way. For this research, we used a qualitative approach of the descriptive type and documental analysis of public policies. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is concluded that the applied practice must gradually be inserted into the education of young people and adults, collaborating with the student to facilitate learning and with the teacher, who is always looking for new ways to meet your student.</p> Regiane Aparecida da Silva Cínthia Maria Felício Regina Márcia Ferreira-Silva Julio Cesar Ferreira Matias Noll ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 20 10.15359/ree.27-1.14472 Artificial Neural Network Model to Predict Academic Results in Mathematics II <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This article shows the design and training of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict academic results of Civil Engineering students of the Fabiola Salazar Leguía National Intercultural University, from Bagua-Peru, in the subject of Mathematics II. <strong>Method.</strong> The CRISP-DM methodology was used, surveys were conducted to collect the data, and the RNA model was implemented in the Matlab software using the nnstart command and two learning algorithms: Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM). The performance of the model was evaluated through the mean square error and the correlation coefficient. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The LM algorithm achieved better prediction effectiveness.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Fernando Alain Incio-Flores Dulce Lucero Capuñay-Sanchez Ronald Omar Estela-Urbina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 19 10.15359/ree.27-1.14516 Learning Science From Childhood to Adulthood: Life Stories of Chilean and American Doctoral Students in Relation to Their Experiences and Visions About the Nature of Open and Closed Science <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The purpose of this research was to explore how doctoral students in the United States and Chile have experienced their careers in the life sciences, and how they have perceived the nature of science (NoS) throughout their lives, including their activities as doctoral students working in laboratories. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The narrative design of this qualitative study included individual life story interviews with 10 Chilean and 10 American doctoral students; it was applied a semi-structured questionnaire that delved into their experiences of learning science from childhood to adulthood. The work with the collected data was carried out from a thematic analysis combined with the use of qualitative analysis software to codify the transcribed interviews. <strong>Analysis of results.</strong> The socialization process in the practice of doing science was similar for Chilean and American students in terms of the different stages of life, particularly in the doctorate stage, where the interviewees referred to creativity as a characteristic of the NoS. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> This raises a discussion on the role of the family, teachers, school, university, and teacher guides as socializing agents in science in different cultures.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Marta Alejandra Silva-Fernández Paulina Constanza Sanzana-Müller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-26 2022-12-26 27 1 1 15 10.15359/ree.27-1.14510 Dialogical Community Classrooms Promoting Collective Motivations From the Diversity of Social Contexts <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> This research addresses three experiences of dialogic community classrooms working from the perspective of the Enlazando Mundos [Intertwining Worlds] dialogic pedagogy in Chile in different cultural contexts: rural, semi-rural and urban. It aims to identify the motivations activating the collective participation of social agents and their relationship with the modes of reciprocal recognition based on Honneth’s theory of justice. <strong>Method.</strong> It uses a participatory action research approach conducted through the kishu kimkelay ta che research-dialogical methodology <span class="s1">(Ferrada, &amp; Del Pino, 2018; Ferrada, 2017; Ferrada et al., 2014).</span> The approach involves social agents, who participate in community classrooms, to form research communities to lead research processes, determining the problem to be investigated and the development of phases to be implemented. The construction of knowledge was achieved through the development of collective dialogues and dialogic conversations. <strong>Results.</strong> Three categories were identified. In them, synergies, the justification for participation, and the problems mobilizing transformation processes in each classroom were recognized; they were based on extrinsic, intrinsic, and transcendental motivational dimensions. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The transcendental motivations are those that encourage the process of co-construction of own knowledge, from the full recognition between agents and cultural validation in each territory, establishing in each of the classrooms dynamics of justice from the identification of the spheres of recognition: love, equal treatment, and social esteem.</p> Blanca Astorga-Lineros Donatila Ferrada-Torres Cecilia Bastías-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.27-1.14596 Epistemological Foundations of the Representation of the Evaluation Concept in Teachers of a Chilean Educational Establishment <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The article presents the results of a study that aims to reveal the epistemological foundations of teachers’ representation of the concept of evaluation. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Through a qualitative, descriptive, and interpretative method, nine teachers were interviewed; they work for a private school with a State subsidy in Viña del Mar, Province of Valparaíso, Chile. In addition, a documentary corpus made up of the Institutional Educational Project (PEI), and the Evaluation Regulation of the establishment was studied. The collected information was first analyzed using the Grounded Theory as a theoretical guide and then from the epistemological approach offered by John Searle’s theory of the institutionalization of language. <strong>Results.</strong> The most significant finding is that the representation the teaching staff elaborates on the concept of evaluation is mainly associated with the purposes of the pedagogical and administrative contexts of the school. The teaching staff represents the concept of evaluation as a conflict between both contexts since the epistemological foundation that sustains such a representation is based on the false belief that, in their teaching work, adherence to one purpose to the detriment of the other is fortuitous.</p> Rolando Gutiérrez-Martínez Javier Vergara-Núñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 21 10.15359/ree.27-1.14393 Analysis of the Social Dimension in the Interactions in the UNED Hosting Forums and Its Implications for the Design of a Chatbot for Educational Guidance <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>To analyze the presence of the social dimension in the interactions of the hosting forums for new students at the UNED and to determine its implications in the design of a chatbot for initial educational guidance. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The presence of the social dimension in the interactions that took place in the virtual induction forums during the 2019/2020 academic year was analyzed and codified, specifically in the technical support forum, the orientation forum, and the mentoring forum in five of the degrees offered by the institution. The sample consisted of 1,461 messages sent through 12 virtual forums by a total of 570 people, to which the categorization proposed by <span class="s1">Rourke et al. (1999)</span> was applied deductively. <strong>Analysis of results.</strong> The data were processed with the help of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It would be advisable for the initial educational guidance chatbot to show affect by expressing emotions, to be interactive by explicitly referring to the messages sent by the users, and to be cohesive by including greetings, encouragement, and vocatives.</p> Borja Guerrero-Bocanegra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 25 10.15359/ree.27-1.15844 Specific Language Impairment and Language Delay: A Study on Enrollment in Language Schools in Chile <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Specific language impairment (SLI) and language delay (LD) are two different diagnostic categories presenting similarities at early ages. <strong>Objective.</strong> To determine trends and levels of significance of enrollment by gender over 14 years, using statistical information published by the Ministry of Education of Chile. <strong>Method.</strong> This research is a quantitative, exploratory study that analyzes the enrollment in language schools (n = 66) of boys and girls diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) in Maule, Chile. The study compares the enrollment trend with previous evidence described on the prevalence of both SLI and LD. Mann-Kendall’s tau test is used for the statistical analysis. In addition, a principal component analysis (PCA) is performed. <strong>Results.</strong> A significant trend (p &lt; 0.05) is shown in the enrollment of children diagnosed with SLI in 22 schools analyzed. Fourteen are positive, and eight are negative. Enrollment of girls shows that significant trends are verified in 26 schools, where 23 are positive and 3 are negative over time. <strong>Discussion. </strong>Trends found in the enrollment of students diagnosed with SLI indicate that girls with RL are being incorporated into special language schools, and not only students with SLI. This finding would have implications for the identification, diagnosis, and educational support for students who present early difficulties in acquiring and progressing their language skills.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maribel Granada-Azcárraga Francisca Cáceres-Zúñiga María Pomés-Correa Alfredo Ibáñez-Córdova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 23 10.15359/ree.27-1.14581 Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Bullying in Adolescents <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective.</strong> To analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence and bullying in ninth and tenth-grade students of an educational institution, since these two aspects are significant in education because they contribute to the construction of positive social relationships. <strong>Methodology. </strong>It is a quantitative approach of a non-experimental design with a transactional cut and a correlational scope. The sample was a systematic sample of 141 ninth and tenth-grade high school students from an educational institution. Data were collected implementing a self-administered questionnaire technique; the instruments used were TMMS-24 and INSEBULL, suitable for the Colombian population. After systematization, the data were analyzed using the SPSS correlational statistical package. <strong>Results.</strong> When relating the dimensions of bullying such as lack of social integration, social maladjustment, and lack of solutions, with the dimensions of emotional intelligence, a significant and inversely proportional relationship was found with emotional clarity and emotional repair, therefore the subjects do not have sufficient resources to get out of bullying situations, since they do not understand and do not regulate their emotional states, preventing them from seeking help for the solution of the conflict when it is necessary. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> Thus, at a general level, the emotional intelligence variable acts independently. Despite the fact that the students present high levels of emotional intelligence, they are not exempt from bullying situations, because it is not the only variable involved in this phenomenon in educational contexts, i.e., the relationship between the variables of emotional intelligence and bullying has a weak correlation according to Spearman Brown's coefficient.</span></p> Yulieth Paola Valenzuela-Aparicio Shirley Karina Olivares-Sandoval Elkin Manuel Figueroa-Ferrer Sandra Milena Carrillo-Sierra Juan Hernández-Lalinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 15 10.15359/ree.27-1.15859 Multiculturality and Educational Leadership in Public Schools: A Systematic Review <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of this paper is to analyze, through a systematic review, the scientific production regarding the intersection of multiculturalism and leadership in school contexts. <strong>Method. </strong>Key studies exploring the intersection of both phenomena in public schools are identified, the objectives of the reviewed studies are classified, and the studies are categorized according to their main bibliometric attributes, conceptual approximations to multiculturalism, and positions associated with leadership roles. The review considered 104 documents published in the last 25 years (1994-2019), employing the PRISMA methodology. <strong>Results</strong>. Results allow the identification of tendencies and challenges for educational research in this field, among which it stands out that most studies focus both on the discourses of school communities facing their problems and on the decision-making processes or actions conducted in these contexts. Likewise, it is noticeable that scientific production is concentrated in anglophone countries (68%), predominantly reporting studies carried out in the US. Similarly, a large proportion of studies address multiculturalism from perspectives centered in indigenous-related topics and identify leadership roles associated with directive/management teams. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> These results show the need for more studies in scarcely addressed dimensions, particularly considering multiculturalism from the perspective of gender or socioeconomic diversity, as well as addressing school leadership more decisively regarding the role of teachers, considering increasingly more diverse educational scenarios. <span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Juan Pablo Queupil Carolina Cuéllar Javiera Ravest Catalina Cuenca ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 24 10.15359/ree.27-1.14452 Equine Assisted Activities to help Minors With Autism Spectrum Disorder. A Literature Review <p><strong>Introduction</strong>, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) lacks a definitive treatment, although Animal Assisted Activities, especially with horses, stand out as an alternative for its symptoms. <strong>Objective,</strong> To review the research on Equine Assisted Therapy and its efficacy in working with children with ASD. <strong>Analysis</strong>, Previous literature was reviewed between 2012 and 2020 in various databases (MEDLINE, psycINFO, PsycArticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciencies Collection, Psicodoc and ERIC), establishing as search and analysis criteria that the publications were refereed, had the full text for subsequent reading and coding, and had been published from 2012 onwards. Taking into account all of the above, 16 interventions carried out between 2012 and 2019 were finally included. <strong>Results</strong>, From the articles obtained and reviewed, it was found that therapeutic riding predominates and significant improvements were observed in the participating children in aspects such as hyperactivity, irritability, motor skills (improving the performance of tasks autonomously) and even certain social aspects. <strong>Conclusions</strong>, despite the benefits observed, it is also clear that it is difficult to draw conclusions and systematize the results, due to the great variability of instruments and measures used in the different studies. <strong>Recommendations</strong>, Although therapeutic riding seems to be beneficial for working with children with ASD, more reviews and especially meta-analyses are needed to know its true effect.</p> Inge Axpe Estibaliz Ramos-Díaz Oihane Fernández-Lasarte Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 20 10.15359/ree.27-1.17182 The Influence of Mental Health on Students’ Performance During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The pandemic has led the world’s population to face mental health problems, such as anguish, anxiety, and depression. In addition, preventive measures to reduce the number of infections in the countries resulted in isolation that represented a challenge to the traditional form of education. <strong>Aim.</strong> This paper aims to present a bibliographic review of the consequences of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and their relationship with school performance within the new form of education based on applied technologies. <strong>Results.</strong> The results show that incorporating mental health in learning strategies, with the help of educational technology, will allow students to develop adequate behavior before society and increase academic performance.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Roberto Angel Meléndez-Armenta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 12 10.15359/ree.27-1.14538 Wordless Picture Books as a Multi-Disciplinary Educational Resource: A Review and Analysis of the Literature <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>Wordless picture books are characterized by an artistic and visual design that has traditionally been associated with early infancy. However, the development and complexity of wordless picture books attract readers of all ages, who assume an extraordinarily active role. The required involvement of readers, their editorial development, and their ability to transcend linguistic barriers have been the subject of research. <strong>Purpose</strong>. The purpose of this article is to present a bibliographic review of the study and the use of wordless picture books as an educational resource. <strong>Analysis</strong>. Our review of the literature shows this path since the 1970s from a holistic approach. The academic bibliography is therefore organized and analyzed, with a special emphasis on the most representative recent educational interventions. <strong>Results.</strong> The diversification of current lines of research reflects the multi-disciplinary nature of wordless picture books. The results show the suitability of this tool to integrate content and skills, interconnect disciplines, address special educational needs, and develop key multi-disciplinary elements, such as intercultural education. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The implications of our analysis also reveal the problem of the excessive instrumentalization of wordless picture books when they lose their artistic nature and the difficulty of transferring research results into classrooms. Finally, we recommend other lines of research, such as studies to examine the beliefs and attitudes of teachers and works to assess new editorial trends, such as non-fiction wordless picture books.</p> María Jesús Colón-Castillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 24 10.15359/ree.27-1.14480 Scientific Competences in Children From Early Childhood <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>This article presents a review of research and authors who approached the concepts of competence, creative thinking, and learning environments from different perspectives as axes in the development of research competencies. These concepts describe the factors that incur in the educational dynamics of the child population. <strong>Objective. </strong>To identify the existing relationship between skills, emotions, and learning environments as axes for developing creative and critical thinking in boys and girls. <strong>Analysis.</strong> For the study, a qualitative paradigm was used from a hermeneutical perspective, favoring the documentary study as a research strategy. <strong>Results</strong>. It is essential to start in early childhood the strengthening of scientific skills in coordination with the education of emotions. This dyad is essential for developing skills and competencies, not only cognitive and academic but also social. Learning environments must, on the one hand, promote direct contact with the objects of knowledge and, on the other, generate links; both elements potentiate being, knowing, and doing materialized in the development of scientific skills. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The basic devices are activated while educational possibilities are generated, in which boys and girls can feel, touch, see, and smell. Likewise, this leads to the development of creative, scientific, and critical thinking.</p> Paola Andrea Carvajal-Sánchez Adriana María Gallego-Henao Enid Daniela Vargas-Mesa Leisy Magdali Arroyave-Taborda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 17 10.15359/ree.27-1.14402 Perspectives and Recent Research on Feedback in the Classroom: Considerations for a Pedagogical and Dialogical Approach <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose. </strong>This bibliographic essay analyzes the perspectives and recent research on feedback. The central argument supports the importance of studying the phenomenon from this approach to deepen what the teacher-student interaction is like and how students participate, interpret, and use the feedback information to build knowledge. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The debate focuses on the criticism of the information transmission approach that limits feedback as a monological-unidirectional practice centered on the teacher. In contrast, the socio-constructivist approach understands it as a social phenomenon in which teachers and students interact. However, both perspectives reduce the discussion to the search for a generic model for good practices and limit its function to the achievement of learning as a cognitive product. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is important to enrich the study in the field from a pedagogical and social approach that assumes feedback as an interactive to problematize the dominant perspectives that define its action as a cognitive product related to academic performance in educational contexts.</p> David Herrera-Araya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 19 10.15359/ree.27-1.14547 Emotional Education in the Venezuelan University Curriculum. Present or absent? <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>For <span class="s1">Maturana (2005),</span> saying that reason defines what is human is like putting blinders on because it leaves us blind to emotion, which is devalued as something animal, or as something that denies the rational. However, science speaks today of the role of emotions and their neurological processes as important elements in the behavior and learning of the individual. <strong>Purpose.</strong> The present essay, as a product of the dissertations achieved in the doctoral thesis, aims to present to the community the role of emotional education in the university curricula for teacher training in Venezuela, approached from the interpretive paradigm and hermeneutic phenomenology. <strong>Discussion</strong>. From the experience and the expressions of some key informants, interviewed in the doctoral research and used in this essay, some primordial key aspects are established, which could be fundamental, nowadays, in the conception or genesis of a curriculum that excludes emotions from the training of Venezuelan teachers. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The inclusion of emotional education in the university curriculum is becoming increasingly necessary, and this criterion coincides with the premises of Goleman, Bisquerra, Morin, Freire, and other theorists who have delved into the subject. However, when we analyze the curriculum and its implementation in the classroom, we find a fragmented vision where emotions are excluded and the development of the intellectual capacities of the students is exalted. Thus, it is forgotten that educating from freedom and emotional recognition requires a deep knowledge that is directed towards the formation of a whole being, capable of generating contributions to the society to which he belongs.</p> Alexaivy del Valle Torres-López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 13 10.15359/ree.27-1.14573 Cooperative Learning: Reflections for Implementation in Inclusive Classrooms <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> This essay aims to reflect on the concept of cooperative learning (CL) as a response to inclusive education in schools. <strong>Discussion.</strong> From this perspective, this study recognizes inclusion as an educational process that guarantees the human right of children and young people to be educated, regardless of their individual, sociocultural, identitary, religious, ethnic, and educational differences. In the same way, it focuses on the concept of inclusive education from its dilemmatic character –that is, adequate to the diversity of the student body– and located in common and inclusive structures in the system, school, and classroom. In this line, although the need to train practicing teaching staff at this point is evident, it is worth asking about the teacher training programs that should guide their instruction toward the skills, knowledge, and attitudes, both disciplinary and pedagogical, of their students, and along with it, toward inclusive education. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The essay concludes that training institutions can find in the CL a didactic opportunity that introduces teaching practices and, therefore, tools to face the challenges presented by inclusive classrooms.</p> Pamela Correa-Gurtubay Natalia Andrea Osses-Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 27 1 1 14 10.15359/ree.27-1.14543