Revista Electrónica Educare <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong>Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;In all cases, it is understood that the opinions issued are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position and opinion of Educare, CIDE or Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</p> <p class="p1">5. The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">/&nbsp;CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> Learning Bribri and Learning in Bribri: A Pedagogical Proposal to Using an Indigenous Language <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective.</strong> To present the results of a pedagogical proposal for using the Bribri language with second-grade students at Las Brisas School, Cabagra </span><span class="s2">(Zúñiga Morales, 2019),</span><span class="s1"> Costa Rica. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Two innovative works were developed: adapting an instrument to determine the linguistic skills in the Bribri language of the participating population; in addition, a pedagogical proposal was designed to be applied over three consecutive weeks in all subjects of the school curriculum (except the Spanish course). <strong>Results.</strong> With this proposal, not only the linguistic competencies in the Bribri language were improved, but all the curricular contents that the Ministry of Public Education (MEP) established for second grade in different subjects were facilitated. The students went from a Basic Beginner Level to a Medium Intermediate Level and were able to develop small presentations, incorporate idiomatic expressions into their daily life classroom and create with language. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The indigenous language should not only be studied from isolated vocabularies and abstract grammar. It is necessary to use it in all kinds of everyday situations and force its constant use with various idioms and tools that allow its users to create with language progressively. It is proven that conditions can be facilitated to contribute valuable elements to the linguistic revitalization of the school classroom. It is stated that not only is the indigenous language learned, but also that various disciplinary knowledge can be accessed through it.</span></p> Alex Zúñiga-Morales Vivian Carvajal-Jiménez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 26 2 1 22 10.15359/ree.26-2.1 Level of Satisfaction in High School Students With the Use of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in the Classroom <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This paper aims to evaluate the level of satisfaction of high school students when using collaborative learning methodologies through ICT or CSCL for their teaching-learning process. <strong>Method.</strong> Regarding the methodology, 117 Dominican Republic students were selected from five different secondary school grades; these students had developed a three-month collaborative project. A quasi-experimental quantitative design was adopted. The instrument applied to collect the data consisted of a 20-question rubric, with Likert-type scales from 1 to 7. For the data analysis, non-parametric tests of U from Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used depending on the case. <strong>Results.</strong> The results show a high degree of student satisfaction when using the mentioned learning methodologies, with significant differences depending on the type of studies and gender. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> In conclusion, the importance of the role of teaching and the design of authentic tasks to increase student satisfaction is highlighted.</p> Rosalba Acosta-Corporan Antonio Víctor Martín-García Azucena Hernández-Martín ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.2 Dialogical and Collaborative Practices Promoted by Kimeltuchefes to Articulate Mapuche Knowledge, Knowledge, and Schoolchildren in Mapuche Contexts <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> This original article derived from a research project titled <em>Towards Educational Practices to Make Progress in Intercultural Education in Mapuche Contexts. </em>This is a pending challenge. This research was conducted in Mapuche communities in La Araucanía Region. <strong>Objective.</strong> To analyze the dialogic practices between Mapuche and traditional school knowledge and knowledge from the perspective of the kimeltuchefes located in rural Mapuche contexts. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The methodological approach is qualitative, framed in grounded theory. The participants correspond to 36 kimeltuchefes (Mapuche people who carry knowledge, wisdom, and experience); the data collection techniques used were in-depth interviews and focus groups. The analysis process was interpretive. <strong>Results. </strong>The main results indicate that the Mapuche family plays a fundamental role in the education and transmission of their culture to the Mapuche and non-Mapuche students. It was found that dialogue plays an important role in inter-subjective relationships between kimeltuchefes and teachers since it allows the exchange and learning of knowledge, wisdom, and experiences. In this sense, the school must integrate the Mapuche families and include the Kimeltuchefes through learning communities to advance in the construction of an intercultural curriculum through dialogue and collaborative work. In addition, this requires articulated pedagogical practices and the teacher’s role as a reflective mediator, generator of information and knowledge. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The knowledge, wisdom, and experiences of the Mapuche educators must be recognized and valued, which, at the same time, must be in constant dialogue with school knowledge through common cultural, educational projects in order to advance towards intercultural education.</p> Juan Carlos Beltrán-Veliz Julio César Tereucán-Angulo Sergio Hernán Pérez-Morales ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-09 2022-03-09 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.3 New Scenarios, Actors, and Educational Practices Where Coexistence, Diversity, and Culture Are Built <p class="p1"><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong> Colombia has a variety of territories, people, cultures, political, and religious affiliations; however, it has been affected by a history of violence, inequality, corruption, among other evils, associated with the lack of tolerance for differences and the lack of protection for communities and minorities. <strong>Objective.</strong> The study was proposed to unveil the knowledge produced by organizations, their cultural modes of knowledge construction, intercultural learning, practices, and knowledge. As a counter-hegemonic bet, it was proposed to make them visible by considering their territories, life stories, and experiences. <strong>Method.</strong> The study was conducted from participatory action research, with 38 co-researchers from 13 organizations through pedagogical/research meetings, visits to territories, reflection circles, and interviews. <strong>Results. </strong>The study identified lines of flight analyzed from the perspective of the decolonization of aesthetic, epistemic manifestations, and the configuration of pedagogy in a territory as a vehicle of relations, the care of oneself and others in common spaces from dialogues, and plurilogical and multicultural practices. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is possible to demonstrate the recognition of an epistemic diversity and another pedagogy, that is, a call for other logics/rupture of the unitary idea of the world. Within the educational process of organizations, it is also possible to find paths to educate differentials, where educational concepts and methods are removed from the past and presented as everyday events that are interrogated in deliberative spaces.</p> Ana Lucia Rosero-Prada Elsy Dominguez-De La Ossa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-28 2022-01-28 26 2 1 23 10.15359/ree.26-2.4 Active Methodology for the Implementation of Inclusive Education <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Inclusive education is currently consolidated in terms of its approaches and theoretical bases. Still, the implementation of inclusion in ordinary educational centers requires a different performance of the teaching-learning process, which is not yet consolidated. <strong>Objective.</strong> To determine how the implementation of active methodologies within primary education favors the process of educational inclusion, showing how the presence, participation, and progress of all students can be a reality in schools and classrooms. <strong>Methodology.</strong> An explanatory qualitative study is described. Eight primary school teachers from different schools in Mallorca participated in the study, with whom six discussion group sessions were held to collect the information. Later, an analysis was conducted with NVIVO data analysis software based on the deductive method. <strong>Results. </strong>The results show how active methodologies can be inclusive if they attend to certain factors such as the need for a physical and emotional presence linked to the group identity of the classroom, the real participation in planning, communication, and cooperative teams’ processes, and the development of a competency learning. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The teaching role and its intervention are highlighted as key elements of good inclusive practices in schools, where the presence, participation, and progress of students are three progressive links of teaching performance and a starting point for improvement and professional development.</span></p> Joan Jordi Muntaner-Guasp Bartomeu Bartomeu Mut-Amengual Carme Pinya-Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 26 2 1 21 10.15359/ree.26-2.5 Experience and University Praxis in the Evaluation of Students with Hearing Disabilities <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>The pedagogical practice in current education involves facing challenges that improve the learning process of its actors in the levels and modalities of the Venezuelan educational system. The constant transformation to guarantee the educational quality, the legal framework that supports such efforts, and the personal and professional improvement of the teachers responsible for the educational event give an account of the profound reflection that decant in the innovation in attention to diversity in the social reality. <strong>Objective.</strong> From this process of reflection and contrast with experience, this field research, with a non-experimental and descriptive design, aimed to analyze the evaluation process of people with hearing disabilities of the Libertador Pedagogical Experimental University, Rafael Alberto Escobar Lara Pedagogical Institute, Maracay, Venezuela. <strong>Methodology.</strong> For this purpose and during three (3) academic periods, the experience of four (4) deaf students from the Special Education specialty in Auditory Deficiencies is reported, based on the interviews conducted, the descriptive analysis of the process, and the developed academic activities. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> With the information obtained and the respective qualitative and quantitative analysis, in conclusion, it was established that the main difficulties in the evaluation process of the students were the following: the teachers do not communicate in sign language, the interpretation of the class material is absent, the interpreter is absent during the hours of class, there is a lack of adequacy of the techniques and instruments used to assess learning and mastery of knowledge aimed at these students, and school absenteeism is a problem present.</p> Ludmilan Zambrano-Steensma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-09 2022-03-09 26 2 1 15 10.15359/ree.26-2.6 Concept Maps and Meaningful Learning in Primary School Students <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This research article aimed to determine the level of significant learning acquired by students in the third grade of Primary Education after applying concept maps in the teaching process. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Research of quantitative approach, experimental type, with a quasi-experimental design and a sample of 66 students, using the pre-test and post-test as data collection instruments. <strong>Analysis of Results.</strong> The results obtained allowed determining that most of the students in the experimental group developed their intellectual capacities, explored their knowledge, and, finally, achieved competencies and skills at a high and significant level. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The application of concept maps in the teaching process allows teachers to present information in a summarized form so that students can easily grasp key ideas and remember them for life, thus helping to improve student learning. Hence, its use is recommended from the early years of school.</p> Beker Maraza-Vilcanqui Liliam Carola Zevallos-Solís ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 26 2 1 16 10.15359/ree.26-2.7 School Repetition: Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Time Perspective in Peruvian Adolescents in Lima Metropolitan Area <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>School repetition is a perceived school phenomenon, but it has not been addressed in Latin America; this is evidenced in the low scientific production of the population concerning the variables self-efficacy and temporal perspective. In this sense, the present research aimed to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and temporal perspective in repeater students of secondary level. <strong>Method.</strong> The General Self-Efficacy Scale instrument, using its Peruvian version <span class="s1">(Grimaldo Muchotrigo, 2005)</span>, and Temporary Perspective Inventory <span class="s1">(Díaz-Morales, 2006)</span> were applied. The sample consisted of 157 school students who repeated the school year at the primary or secondary level. <strong>Results.</strong> The results indicate a moderate and positive relationship between self-efficacy and the future dimension (r = 0.48), positive past (r = 0.32) and hedonistic present (r = 0.30), and a low and positive relationship between self-efficacy and negative past (r = 0.22) and fatalistic present (r = 0.27). <strong>Discussion.</strong> It is concluded that there is a moderate relationship between self-efficacy and prospects that should be examined in future studies, understanding that the population of repeater students is a group that has not yet been studied. In fact, these results have strong practical implications because they show the need to explore psychological variables in a population with grade repetition and to carry out approaches from the psycho-pedagogical departments of the educational centers.</p> Sofía Marin-Velazco Daniela Ramos-León José Ventura-León Mario Reyes-Bossio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 26 2 1 13 10.15359/ree.26-2.8 Heritage Education in Pre-colonial Settlements: Are There Differences in Learning According to Presentation Models of Archaeological Sites? <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> <span class="s1">Masriera i Esquerra (2007, 2008)</span> affirms that, in reconstructed archaeological sites, there is real learning in students, but in consolidated models unlearning is generated. <strong>Objective.</strong> To know if there are differences in learning according to the presentation models of archaeological sites in students of the Peruvian Archeology course. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The research approach is a quantitative and descriptive type study with a non-experimental cross-sectional design. The sample is non-probabilistic and consists of 54 students from the 2nd cycle of the Peruvian Archeology course of the 2019 school period. The survey and observation were applied using 2 questionnaires (IEQA-1a and IEQA-4d) and 2 checklists (IEQA-2b and IEQA-3c). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and the non-parametric U Mann-Whitney test were also used. <strong>Results.</strong> The conceptual learning of the students in the consolidated site is medium (Me = 11), and in the reconstructed one, it is high (Me = 13); however, significant mean assimilation was evidenced in this model. Procedural learning at the reconstructed site is high (Me = 7), while in the consolidated one, it is low (Me = 4). Finally, attitudinal learning in the consolidated site is high (Me = 41), while in the reconstructed one, it is very high (Me = 44). <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The results show significant differences in the procedural and attitudinal learning of the students who participated in the consolidated and reconstructed site. However, this reality is not manifested in the assimilation of conceptual content.</p> Iván Ernesto Quijano-Araníbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-07 2022-04-07 26 2 1 24 10.15359/ree.26-2.9 Final Year Dissertations with a Musical Topic at the Faculty of Education, Albacete, Spain (University of Castilla-La Mancha) <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective. </strong>To collect and analyze the bachelor theses supervised and defended in the Department of Music of the Faculty of Education in Albacete, Spain (UCLM). The study covered the period from the department implementation in 2012-2013 to the academic year 2018-2019. <strong>Methodology</strong>. The approach used was mainly quantitative and descriptive with a sample of 102 final year dissertations, of which 66 belong to the bachelor’s degree in Primary Education, 33 to the bachelor’s degree in Early Childhood Education, and 3 to the bachelor’s degree in Bilingual Primary Education (English). The following variables were analyzed: number of theses, academic years, research lines, and keywords in titles. <strong>Results.</strong> A steady continuity in the research output was observed in the overviewed period. The most researched lines included music and emotions (19.61%), music and information and communication technologies (15.69%), and music and special education (14.71%), while the least researched one was legislation on music education (2.94%). The analysis of the keywords of the titles showed a strong presence of the term emotion(s)/(al) in the bachelor’s degrees of Early Childhood and Primary Education Teaching. Some substantial differences were also found in the thematic preferences of both degrees, pointing to more theoretical and technical studies in Primary Education and more practical studies in Early Childhood. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> This paper analyzed and discussed the research lines of a sample of bachelor theses. The limitations of the sample offered preliminary results on the evolution of the research lines, which suggests differences between the thematic preferences between both degrees.</span></p> María del Valle de Moya-Martínez Bohdan Syroyid-Syroyid Narciso José López-García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 26 2 1 17 10.15359/ree.26-2.10 Development of Metalinguistic Awareness for Reading Comprehension in Spanish as a Second Language <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The research is the product of an experience carried out to verify the effect produced by the development of metalinguistic awareness in the improvement of reading comprehension in Spanish, as a second language, in primary level students of a bilingual intercultural education institution. <strong>Method.</strong> The study has a quantitative and quasi-experimental design, with a pretest and post-test in a control group and an experimental group. The sample consisted of 50 schoolchildren, 25 students in the control group, and 25 in the experimental group, from classrooms “A” and “B”. Data collection was performed through an objective test, with the corresponding validity and reliability test. The Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon U statisticians were used for the hypothesis test. <strong>Results.</strong> The main finding shows that, in the pre-test, the dependent variable and its dimensions presented a level of sig.&gt; 0.05. Once the process was concluded and the post-test was applied, it presented a level of sig. &lt;0.05, observing a difference in favor of the experimental group. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The analysis of the statistical values obtained allows us to conclude that the development of metalinguistic awareness produces significant effects on reading comprehension at a literal, inferential, and critical level in Spanish as a second language in primary school students. Therefore, it is recommended to deepen the study in different samples to generalize the development of metalinguistic awareness as a proposal to improve reading comprehension in Spanish as a second language.</p> Rolando Alfredo Quispe-Morales ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-08 2022-04-08 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.11 The Digital Paradox: Analysis of Differences in Teacher Implementing Technology Inside and Outside the Classroom <p class="p1"><strong>Background.</strong> In higher education, the evaluation of the use of technologies shows discrete results in terms of teaching. In a deeply technologized society, this fact contrasts with the high level of digitalization in the teachers’ daily practice: they regulate their lives according to the digital technology principles. <strong>Aims.</strong> This research aims to contrast the digital practices of teachers outside and inside the classroom based on a model of technological adoption that qualifies the uses of ICT and the level of appropriation that these uses imply. <strong>Method.</strong> This effect was analyzed using a non experimental descriptive methodology, and a survey was conducted to establish the level of technological adoption in teachers’ lives and teaching practices. <strong>Results.</strong> In private life, how teachers use technology allows the expansion of tasks carried out towards horizons that traditionally cannot be reached without its use. This is not the case in teaching, where the use of digital tools contributes to implementing traditional practices. Concerning teacher training, teachers perceive the need to direct it to expand the digital experience, although in their professional practice, they continue to have a clearer orientation towards reproducing those traditional practices. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The results show that technological adoption in private life is mainly orientated towards a widening level, whereas teaching focuses more on switching traditional tasks to others that, even though they imply the use of digital technologies, do not innovate in practice.</p> Rosario Freixas Daniel Domínguez-Figaredo Fernando Gamboa-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-07 2022-04-07 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.12 Pedagogical Use of Blogs in the Attitudinal Component of Written Communication Skills <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> With this study, based on Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) and the three-dimensional theory of attitude, it is intended to determine the impact of the pedagogical use of blogs in WIX –a web development platform– on the attitudinal component of written communicative competence in the student body of the Writing Leveling course at the Technological University of Peru (UTP). <strong>Methodology.</strong> Quasi-experimental design and the quantitative approach will be discussed. The sample consisted of 50 students: 26 for the control and 24 for the experiment, in which a three-dimensional Likert scale survey was applied, in a pretest and posttest. <strong>Results.</strong> The results showed that the experimental group experienced the Achieved level and the In process control. In the first and second dimensions, the experiment reached the Achieved level (m = 29.08) and (m = 29.08), respectively. Instead, the control group assigned the In process level (m = 23.73) and (m = 26.77), respectively. In the third dimension, both groups reached the In process level: m = 28.08 and m = 26.35, respectively. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The students who specified the blog significantly affected the taste for academic writing and greatly improved the perception of it, but could not completely modify the behavioral predisposition, which showed that working with non-institutional digital platforms does not guarantee that there is temporal consistency. Among the components of attitude, so that the perception of novice writers is not detected, modifications, at the same time, that the taste for writing and the way of acting as writers. The components can be specifically developed.</p> José Miguel Cornelio-Ramos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.13 Analysis of Public Administration’s Continuous Training Programs. A Case Study <p class="p1"><strong>Objectives. </strong>This research aimed to meet 3 objectives: 1) to analyze, in depth, the planning model for training developed by the Asturian Institute of Public Administration Adolfo Posada, in the North of Spain; 2) to point out the implications that this type of training design can have for the development of permanent training of people employed in the public sector in administrations; 3) to propose training alternatives based on the limitations found. <strong>Methodology.</strong> The research strategy and the methodological tools are rooted in the qualitative tradition. The research strategy deployed was a case study, and the main tools to collect information were interviews, document analysis, and bibliographical revision of the scientific literature. This research used the following analytical categories: teacher role, didactic methodologies, objectives, contents, and pedagogical materials. <strong>Results.</strong> One of the main results of this case study research was to confirm that the training planning model followed the principles of the technological model. This technological training model has some limitations regarding participants’ active participation or transferability of the training. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>In order to overcome these limitations, the last part of the paper proposes some alternative principles for training planning in public administrations.</p> Juan Ramón Rodríguez-Fernández Enrique-Javier Díez-Gutiérrez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.14 Computer Literacy in Early Childhood Education: Difficulties and Benefits in a 3-year-old Classroom <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> In this work, we analyze the type of difficulties and arguments that three-year-old children show when they carry out tasks related to programming and educational robotics. <strong>Method. </strong>A theoretical design has been developed, and a sequence of activities has been implemented in a classroom of 3-year-old children. A case study was conducted with 8 children. <strong>Results.</strong> Among the results, we identified three types of difficulties, those derived from the characteristics of the robot, those associated with the action-instruction comprehension dimension of computational thinking, and those associated with the cognitive stage of the children. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. Based on the analysis of the arguments expressed in the development of the task, we conclude that the use of educational robots at early ages favors the development of computer literacy, and this makes its inclusion in classroom activities recommendable.</p> Ainhoa Berciano-Alcaraz María Salgado-Somoza Clara Jiménez-Gestal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-08 2022-04-08 26 2 1 21 10.15359/ree.26-2.15 Parent Involvement in Homework <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> To know how the family, specifically the parents, affects the pattern of doing homework. <strong>Method.</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive-evaluative study was conducted using an ad hoc questionnaire. The study included 294 Spanish families whose children were enrolled in the last years of primary school during the 2019-2020 academic year. SPSS 22.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Since the selected variables are nominal, descriptive statistics were used, specifically frequencies and percentages, as well as the use of contingency tables, Pearson’s χ2, Cramer’s V to determine the size of the effect. <strong>Results.</strong> The main results showed a parental pattern of autonomy in doing homework and the search for support, preferably from relatives instead of external support. This pattern is repeated in sons and daughters, who also do homework at home and invest between 1 and 2 hours, although this depends on the educational course. The place and the person who helps with sons and daughters’ homework assignments are significantly related to the the parents’ educational level. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The continuity of the model from fathers and mothers to sons and daughters is significantly demonstrated; this denotes the need for a pedagogical review in this regard, which promotes a different approach to the performance of homework.</p> María de los Ángeles Hernández-Prados Juan Antonio Gil-Noguera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 26 2 1 18 10.15359/ree.26-2.16 Training of Rural Extension Agents in Latin America: Practices, Problems, and Proposals <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Most academic work on training extension agents tends to address the topic tangentially, in a purely theoretical way or focussing on specific case studies. This article aims to describe, characterize, and analyze the training received by extension agents from Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Uruguay. <strong>Method. </strong>A sample of 133 extension agents was interviewed in 68 individual and 18 group interviews. The interviews were transcribed and examined using content analysis with the support of Atlas.ti software. <strong>Results</strong>. Extension agents receive productive and methodological training, though they perceive the latter to be insufficient. Practical training and participatory methodologies, which allow for the exchange of experiences among peers, are valued the most. The interviewees recommend that extension institutions support their employees’ training and develop systematic training plans covering productive topics and extension methodologies. Training is expected to be practical, participatory, up-to-date, and sufficiently profound. <strong>Discussion. </strong>The research results concur with different investigations. The most important merit of the article is to analyze the situation in different countries beyond case studies. We recommend studying further the impact of institutional frameworks in the training practices for extension institutions.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Fernando Landini Iván Villafuerte-Almeida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.17 Analysis of Sex-Education Programs for Teenagers in Spain and Other Countries <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Nowadays, sex education in schools and non-formal settings is evident. This type of education has evolved in recent decades in its approach and methodology, with different models coexisting </span><span class="s2">(López Sánchez, 2005).</span><span class="s1"> <strong>Objective.</strong> To review and analyze sex education programs for adolescents in different countries and the most representative interventions in Spain. <strong>Analysis.</strong> A systematic review of programs using the model of </span><span class="s2">Barbosa Chacón et al. (2013),</span><span class="s1"> in which 16 programs (4 international and 12 national) developed between 1992 and 2016, were analyzed. The bibliographic search was performed in scientific databases and on websites of Official Organizations, Autonomous Communities, entities, and reference working groups. <strong>Results.</strong> Among the main findings, the coexistence of different sex education approaches such as the biographical-professional model, the risk model, the model for abstinence, or the Comprehensive Sex Education stands out, being greater the effectiveness of those programs that address sexuality from a holistic perspective. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Sex education should be integrated into the curriculum, offering a comprehensive view of sexuality that includes psychosocial aspects, sexual diversity, and gender equality. A rigorous evaluation (quantitative and qualitative) of all the aspects included in the programs is necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of sex education and discover the key issues to its delivery.</span></p> Sonia Barriuso-Ortega Davinia Heras-Sevilla María Fernández-Hawrylak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 26 2 1 21 10.15359/ree.26-2.18 Comparative Study on the Presence of Historical Thinking Skills in the Educational Curricula of Different Countries <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Historical thinking is a highly relevant aspect in teaching-learning history as it is a didactic approach that allows the development of more complex cognitive skills from a constructivist perspective. For students’ historical education to be based on this teaching approach, it is necessary to introduce it into educational curricula, among other aspects. <strong>Method.</strong> This qualitative research aimed to compare the curricula of ten countries (Canada, the United States, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Australia, England, Portugal, France, and Spain), of particular relevance for their publications on this subject, to verify the presence of historical thinking concepts in them through the technique of content analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> The results showed that these concepts were incorporated into most curricula according to educational studies conducted on this subject. The results showed that most of the curricula have echoed the educational research carried out on this theme, including such concepts in their study programs. <strong>Discussion.</strong> Nevertheless, some modifications are necessary in the study programs of other countries to foster the development of historical thinking among students. To this end, curricula in which the historical concepts proper to this teaching approach are fully integrated can serve as a model and reference.</p> María Martínez-Hita Cosme Jesús Gómez-Carrasco Pedro Miralles-Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.19 Characterization of Academic Procrastination in Peruvian University Students <p class="p1"><strong>Aims. </strong>This study aimed to understand the characteristics associated with academic procrastination in engineering students at a private university in Lima. The theoretical bases were Barkley’s Theory of Executive Functions and Bandura’s Theory of Self-Efficacy. <strong>Method.</strong> A qualitative method combined with a phenomenological design was used to understand the research topic from the participant’s point of view. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten students who attended individual coaching sessions and tended to have low grades and procrastinate. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify, organize and recognize patterns from a deep reading of the data to understand the research topic. <strong>Results.</strong> The results show that students have not been able to incorporate study habits, which leads them to postpone their tasks. In addition, they are distracted by the use of technology and have anxiety and stress. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Nowadays, academic procrastination is understood from a more comprehensive perspective that considers executive functioning, supported by scientific discoveries about the human brain.</p> Beatriz Duda-Macera Eliana Gallardo-Echenique ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 26 2 1 17 10.15359/ree.26-2.20 Educational Diagnosis of the Educational Science Degree Program at the University of Oviedo: Sex Education as Explicit Curricular Content <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This study presents an educational diagnosis to determine the current context of sex education in the degree program of Educational Science at the University of Oviedo and the evaluation of students’ attitudes toward the subject; the study explores the relevance, pertinence, and need for the subject’s inclusion in the degree’s teaching plans. <strong>Method.</strong> Following a mixed methodology, it implemented a validated questionnaire and a process of collection and review of documentary sources. The studied sample comprised 231 students and was of a non-probabilistic, purposive, and convenience type. We reviewed the theoretical-empirical contributions concerning sex education in teacher training for education professionals, the inclusion of this discipline in university curricula, the processes of educational innovation in universities, and the strategies for improving university training for education professionals, among other aspects. <strong>Results</strong>. The 99.6% of the subjects in the sample showed positive attitudes towards sexuality; the high percentages increased with respect to the course, while the medium percentages decreased as the course progressed, becoming higher percentages. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The absence of content related to sex education in the teaching plans of the degree program in Educational Science is evident. It is also reflected that, for the students participating in the study, sex education is considered a right whose exercise should be guaranteed and a discipline that should be addressed compulsorily and explicitly in the curriculum of the degree in a systematic, rigorous, and scientific way and within the teaching timetable. <strong>Recommendations. </strong>It is proposed to design a compulsory sex education course for the degree in Educational Science at the University of Oviedo and train the teaching staff responsible for this subject.</p> Diego Fernández-Fernández Soraya Calvo-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 26 2 1 22 10.15359/ree.26-2.21 Relationship among sleep, technological devices and academic achievement in adolescents from Galicia (Spain) <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Background.</strong> Hygiene and sleep quality have been linked to cognitive functioning in adolescents. The increasing use of technological devices can negatively affect their sleep and academic performance. <strong>Objective</strong>. To study variables involved in the hygiene or sleep disorders, the use of electronic devices, and academic achievement, and detect differences and associations according to age and sex. <strong>Methods. </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study in which 53 students aged 13-16 years participated in answering about their sleep hygiene and their use of technological devices. Also, the BEARS sleep screening and Brief Scale of Scholar Adjustment were applied to them. In addition, their parents informed about their school grades and physical exercise. <strong>Results. </strong>The main results were observed in adolescents aged 13-14 years who experienced stress (M = 4,33), consumed stimulant drinks (M = 2,89), and had sleep problems (50%). In general, there was a significant lag between bedtime school days and weekends; the difference was accentuated with age. Sleepiness was the most referred sleep disorder (47%) and was associated with later disconnection of electronic devices and shorter sleep duration. The school grades, better in women, correlated with school adjustment (generally satisfactory) and affected by sleepiness and sleep problems. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The theoretical implications of the study could be useful to build a model that combines these variables and practical implications for the development of proposals for socio-educational intervention focused on improving sleep hygiene and the use of technological devices to minimize its negative impact on academic performance.</span></p> Teresa Juana García-Real Luisa Losada-Puente ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.22 Educational Practices in Human Rights Education for Teacher Training <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objectives.</strong> This article presents the results of the research project The education in values and human rights in the study plans to train teachers at the University of Costa Rica, whose general objective was to analyze the incorporation of education in values and Humans rights in study plans for teacher training at the University of Costa Rica. <strong>Methodology</strong>. The research project was developed from a qualitative approach. The participants were coordinators and students enrolled in Education majors, and the information was collected through focus groups. <strong>Results</strong>. The results obtained from this study were five educational practices proposed for the promotion of education in values and human rights in teacher training: (1) a methodology and classroom didactics for teacher training; (2) inclusion of tours and professional practices within the teacher training; (3) teacher-student relationship in teacher training for education in human rights; (4) sensitization of teachers and students about the relevance of education in human rights; and (5) continuous review of teacher training curricula. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Among the conclusions, the work of university teachers in teacher training stands out.</span></p> Stephanie Washburn-Madrigal Ana Lupita Chaves-Salas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.23 Internal and External Perceptions About Quality of Online Education <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The main objective of the study was to know the quality of online education at the university level. <strong>Method.</strong> Methodologically, a mixed approach was used with a convergent analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data were obtained from students, teachers, and graduates of this educational modality through focus groups and in-depth interviews. The quantitative data were obtained from external inquiries through surveys. <strong>Results.</strong> As a result, external visions did not show credulity about the quality of online education and, without knowing its curricular dynamism, they exhibited distrust about the competencies of graduates. This explains why higher education continues to be predominantly face-to-face, even with the rise of the virtual world. On the other hand, the internal visions revealed confidence in the quality and confirmed theoretical concepts about learning in virtuality related to pedagogical mediations, educational, technological platforms, pedagogical competencies of teachers, construction of learning, and continuous participation of students. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> These findings can be applied in the renewal of educational quality systems focused on the positivist measurement of intrinsic factors; they can also be used to advance from a model of socialization and promotion based on flexibility and easy access to another focused on pedagogical potential and training advantages of online education.</p> José Eucario Parra-Castrillón ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-09 2022-03-09 26 2 1 18 10.15359/ree.26-2.24 Resilience in Mathematics Learners <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> A series of aspects related to learners’ resilience of mathematical content are characterized, considering that students can exhibit unfavorable attitudes towards Mathematics. These attitudes restrict the possibility of facing problem-solving in this subject, with cases of students abandoning homework or dropping out of school because they feel aversion towards Mathematics. <strong>Objective.</strong> To characterize the resilience associated with learners of mathematical content. <strong>Analysis. </strong>A documentary review was conducted, taking into account, mainly, what has been made visible in the last two decades. It was supported by a qualitative content analysis of issues related to the potentialities that Mathematics learners should have to face mathematical problems and solve them successfully. The study focused on students unable to overcome the difficult situations that usually arise in the mathematics classroom. <strong>Results</strong>. Among the findings, it is highlighted that resilience occurs in certain contextual conditions and that those who experience it show an impetuous inner compulsion supported by several pillars. These pillars include socio-affective factors such as self-efficacy, perseverance to solve mathematical problems, and, fundamentally, the value that marks the path for the correct action when learners face obstacles until they overcome the circumstance causing the difficulty. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. It is concluded that every learner of mathematical contents may be resilient if he/she decides to face the extreme situations that may occur in the teaching-learning process of Mathematics.</span></p> Oswaldo Jesús Martínez-Padrón Miren Dunixe De Tejada-Lagonell María del Socorro García-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.25 Factors Related to University Students’ Motivation and Instruments for Its Evaluation: A Systematic Review <p class="p1"><strong>Background.</strong> One of the most important factors in the incorporation to study a university degree in the educational performance and the professional future of university students is motivation. <strong>Purpose.</strong> This study aims to develop a systematic review of the literature that studies motivation in these students and determine the factors related to it and the instruments used to measure it. <strong>Method</strong>. For the research purpose, the method consisted in examining the terms motivation and university students (in Spanish and English) in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, selecting 66 articles reviewed between 2009 and 2019. These articles were selected according to two criteria: cross-sectional and quantitative studies with a pre-experimental or quasi-experimental design and sufficient statistical data to perform the analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> The scientific production in this field has an increasing trend. The studies have been conducted predominantly with students enrolled in different university degrees. The presence or absence of motivation corresponds to tendencies to procrastination. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the importance of research and intervention in the university students’ motivation to improve their academic performance.</p> Lionel Sánchez-Bolívar Asunción Martínez-Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 26 2 1 22 10.15359/ree.26-2.26 Historical Overview of Classical Vocal Pedagogy: A Journey From the Singing Treatises to the Voice Sciences <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> To know the history of vocal pedagogy is basic for singing teachers, not only because of a matter of culture but because the foundations of what we know today as singing teaching are laid in this history. <strong>Objective.</strong> To synthesize the history of vocal pedagogy in order to improve the understanding of how it is applied today and how it has influenced the different vocal teaching methods. <strong>Analysis.</strong> Review of the most relevant texts published from 1723 (the first official singing treatise) to 2020. The texts published before 1950 were chosen based on their historical relevance, and the most recent ones based on their frequent mention in theses or scientific articles from recognized journals on vocal pedagogy. <strong>Results.</strong> A significant difference is found between the ways in which the pedagogy of the voice is developed, from which history is systematized in four stages: first treatises on singing, Manuel García II (invention of laryngoscope), from Manuel García II to 1950 (interdisciplinary scientific papers) and after 1950 to date. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The process from the first treatise until today has built the current vocal pedagogy, based on the historical contributions in almost 300 years, and demanding from the teachers of the 21st century, not only the expertise to listen and deduce what the student does, but also a theoretical scientific knowledge that gives him the basis to handle vocal corrections effectively.</p> Rebeca Viales-Montero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.27 Promoting the Development of Intercultural Competence in Higher Education Through Intercultural Learning Interventions <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>This article analyses the impact of an intercultural learning intervention in a Spanish university post-European Higher Education Area implementation. <strong>Objective.</strong> Our research’s main objective consisted of measuring the development of intercultural competence in the first cohort of a Translation and Intercultural Communication bachelor’s degree in a Spanish university, before and after taking specific courses in intercultural studies and spending a study abroad semester.<strong> Methodology. </strong>A mixed methodology was implemented, in which the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) was used as a measuring instrument. Additionally, in-depth personal interviews were conducted to complement the data obtained. <strong>Results. </strong>The results of this study show that the programming and sequencing of specific courses, together with experiences abroad, contribute to the development of intercultural competence. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> More intercultural learning interventions are needed in higher education courses to develop and build an intercultural campus and educate global citizens. When applying intercultural learning interventions and intercultural methodologies, students develop their intercultural competence, a key competence for 21st-century graduates.</p> Maria Luisa Sierra-Huedo Almudena Nevado-Llopis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 26 2 1 21 10.15359/ree.26-2.28 Interdisciplinary Pedagogical Strategy for teaching in the first cycle of basic education in Colombia <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> School interdisciplinarity allows the student to acquire skills to function in real life, making interdisciplinarity important to use in the classroom. <strong>Purpose.</strong> To implement and evaluate the impact of the Interdisciplinary Pedagogical Strategy (IPS) on the first-year students’ academic performance, particularly on mathematics, social studies, and natural sciences standardized tests. <strong>Method.</strong> A mixed research methodology was implemented: a quasi-experimental quantitative method with a control group and only post-test in the case of the students, and a qualitative approach for the homeroom teachers. The IPS was built considering two branches: in the morning, the contents were taught in an integrated way by transdisciplinary units, and after a break in three disciplines: mathematics, Spanish, and La Salle Lecture (Cátedra Lasallista in a Christian school). A sample of 219 students and 6 teachers from The Institución Educativa Municipal San Juan Bautista De La Salle took part in the research. <strong>Results.</strong> Significant differences between the control and the experimental groups’ performance were found. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> To summarize, the students in the control group improved their academic performance on the standardized test used as an evaluation tool in the mentioned areas, as homeroom teachers noted; this shows that the IPS is useful in the teaching-learning process.</span></p> Nidia Danigza Lugo-López María del Carmen Pérez-Almagro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 26 2 1 23 10.15359/ree.26-2.29 The improvement of Academic Commitment through Mentoring and Service-Learning <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Higher education institutions constantly face challenges to improve their productivity, competitiveness, social impact, quality of education, and training delivered to students. Two of the responses to improve the quality of education and training offered to students and the social impact are service-learning and mentoring. The merit of both teaching interventions is that they allow a more effective connection between the curriculum, the social needs, and the professional world outside. <strong>Objective.</strong> This investigation aimed to explore the effectiveness of the Huelva Educa Program (HEP) to improve the level of academic commitment of participating students as mentors. <strong>Method.</strong> The sample comprised 54 students from the University of Huelva, selected through a sampling non-probability convenience. A quasi-experimental pretest-postest design involving undergraduate students was adopted, where the dependent variable was measured by the Questionnaire on the academic commitment of the university students and the HEP mentors’ workbook. <strong>Results.</strong> Self-reported results show that students have significantly increased behaviors related to participation in class, analyses of experiences and ideas, reflective analyses of experiences and ideas, critical reasoning, and tasks in a foreign language, among others. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. This work provides evidence on the program’s effectiveness for improving the preparation of their subjects, increasing academic achievement, or increasing their active and collaborative learning, recommending the importance of adopting this type of program.</p> Mirian Hervás-Torres María Isabel Miñaca-Laprida Francisco Domingo Fernández-Martín José Luis Arco-Tirado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 26 2 1 19 10.15359/ree.26-2.30 The Renewal of Practices: Their Contribution to Strengthening Resilience in Beginning Teachers <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> TThis research aims to identify the individual aspects that, added to the pedagogical work and the context in which it is developed, contribute to strengthening teacher resilience in beginning teachers. <strong>Method.</strong> Regarding methodology, this is a qualitative study of multiple cases that includes eleven beginning high school teachers working in public schools. Interviews and audio messages via the WhatsApp platform were used, which were submitted to content analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> The results show that the teachers’ main difficulty is the students’ low performance, a situation that they face from the renovation of their teaching practices in terms of didactic and evaluative aspects. The teachers interviewed share a positive vision of their students’ abilities, professional autonomy, a high commitment to student learning, a similar perspective of the meaning of their work, and their social contribution. These shared aspects contribute to a positive bond with peers and the development of collective innovations within collaborative work. <strong>Conclusion. </strong>The conclusions of the study establish the moral commitment to the teaching of teachers and the contribution of pedagogical innovation in increasing their sense of achievement, as well as the need to generate institutional conditions that allow strengthening the resilience of beginning teachers, providing them with appropriate conditions and opportunities for collaborative teaching work to consolidate professional learning communities.</span></p> Paula Verónica Villalobos-Vergara Catherine Ximena Flores-Gómez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 26 2 1 20 10.15359/ree.26-2.31 Socio-educational Strategies for Inclusion in Post-compulsory Studies with Students Under the Guardianship of the Protection System in Galicia (Spain) <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Adolescents under the guardianship of the protection system carry out training itineraries, but only a minority manages to study post-compulsory studies. <strong>Objective.</strong> To understand which strategies of socio-educational accompaniment carried out by the professionals of the protection system facilitate or hinder the achievement of post-compulsory academic objectives of youth protected by the administration in Galicia (Spain). <strong>Method.</strong> A qualitative study was organized in two phases. In the first, seven life histories and 4 longitudinal follow-ups were conducted with young people in protection (nine were females). The mean age was 20.3 years. The procedure was designed following the grounded theory. In the second phase, two discussion groups were performed with the participation of 9 professionals of the child protection system with a mean age of 34.1 years. <strong>Results.</strong> The youths indicate deficits in the institutional support of the protection system that would facilitate overcoming the social obstacles to higher education. The professionals highlight the precariousness of the resources for their work, which affects both the configuration of study supports and the construction of an environment that promotes the establishment of long-term training objectives. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The university and its administrative management processes remain foreign to the specific socio-educational needs of students with social difficulty, especially those who have protective measures. The implications for the educational practice are discussed.</p> Deibe Fernández-Simo Xosé Manuel Cid-Fernández María Victoria Carrera-Fernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 26 2 1 18 10.15359/ree.26-2.32 New Configurations in the Didactic Space. Analysis of Educational Inclusion Policies From the Perspective of Radical Constructivism Proposed by Humberto Maturana <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This essay aims to reflect on the changes experienced by education in Chile since the implementation of the General Education Law (LGE) in 2009, which brought direct consequences in the implementation of various regulations and decrees from an inclusive perspective and valuing diversity. <strong>Discussion.</strong> This reflection is based on the epistemological view of Radical Constructivism as an explanatory domain of the ontogeny of knowledge from the subjectivity of the subject, his experiences, and interactions, rejecting the idea that reality is objective. Based on learning, this epistemic trend places the emotions as promoting elements of scopes for actions for the development of the teaching-learning process, which is coherent with the presented international studies that problematize emotions as a central element for such process. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The conclusion is based on the understanding of emotions from an inclusive point of view, which allows explaining from what is proposed by the Radical Constructivism, the importance of emotions in the analysis of the results of the current public policy, and its affectation in the learning processes within the didactic space.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> David Reinaldo Román-Soto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-09 2022-03-09 26 2 1 12 10.15359/ree.26-2.33