Revista Electrónica Educare <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US Revista Electrónica Educare 1409-4258 <p class="p1">1. In case the submitted paper is accepted for publication, the author(s) <strong>FREELY, COSTLESS, EXCLUSIVELY AND FOR AN INDEFINITE TERM</strong> transfer copyrights and patrimonial rights to Universidad Nacional (UNA, Costa Rica). For more details check the&nbsp;<strong>Originality Statement and Copyright Transfer Agreement</strong></p> <p class="p1">2. REUTILIZATION RIGHTS: UNA authorizes authors to use, for any purpose (among them selfarchiving or autoarchiving) and to publish in the <em>Internet</em> in any electronic site, <strong>the paper´'s final version, both approved and published (post print), as long as it is done with a non commercial purpose, does not generate derivates without previous consentment and recognizes both publisher's name and authorship.</strong></p> <p class="p1">3. <strong>The submission and possible publication</strong> of the paper in the Educare Electronic Journal is ruled by the Journal’s editorial policies, the institutional rules of Universidad Nacional and the laws of the Republic of Costa Rica. Additionally, <strong>any possible difference of opinion or future dispute </strong>shall be settled in accordance with the mechanisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Costa Rican Jurisdiction.</p> <p class="p1">4.&nbsp;In all cases, it is understood that the opinions issued are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position and opinion of Educare, CIDE or Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</p> <p class="p1">5. The papers published by <em>Educare Electronic Journal</em> use a <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a> License:</p> <p class="p1"><a href="" rel="cc:attributionURL">Revista Electrónica EDUCARE</a>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">/&nbsp;CC BY-NC-ND 3.0</a></p> Innovation in the University Classroom Through Augmented Reality. Analysis From the Perspective of the Spanish and Latin American Students <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This article analyzes the experiences of university innovation with immersive technologies (Augmented Reality, RA) of various degree programs at the Pablo de Olavide University of Seville (Spain) and the Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil (Ecuador) corresponding to the academic year 2018-2019. <strong>Method.</strong> Through a mixed methodology of data analysis (quantitative and qualitative) and the design of an ad hoc questionnaire of own elaboration, the perceptions of 202 students were analyzed in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of the RA and the Augmented Reality apps used in the Emerging Technologies seminars in educational contexts, taught in both universities. <strong>Results. </strong>The results show that the most valued mobile applications were <em>QuiverVisión </em>and <em>HP Reveal</em> because of their interactivity, wearable environment, and educational projection in formative contexts, especially at early ages. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. Students perceive the development of cognitive skills and the development of competencies as the main advantages of RA. Likewise, as main disadvantages, the need for university teacher training for classroom implementation and the possible adverse effects of the digital divide.</p> Julio Cabero-Almenara Esteban Vázquez-Cano Wellington Remigio Villota-Oyarvide Eloy López-Meneses ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 25 3 1 17 10.15359/ree.25-3.1 Psycho-Technical Study of a Digital Competence Assessment Tool for Problem-Solving Skills of Compulsory Education Students <p><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Introduction.</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;The assessment of students’ digital competence is essential as its results provide significant data to design and develop proposals for digital literacy instruments in the education system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop assessment procedures for individuals to overcome their self-limiting beliefs on digital competence and identify their knowledge, skills, and attitudes.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Method.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">This article presents the results of a study aimed to analyze the psychometric characteristics of a tool to assess the digital competence of Compulsory Education students in the problem-solving competence area. The results were obtained by a descriptive and transversal methodology and a sample composed of 595 students aged 12-14 from 17 educational centers. The&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">data analysis</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;focused on the validity and reliability of the instrument.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Results&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">and</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;conclusion.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="es-ES">The main conclusion is that we are faced with an efficient and reliable tool that allows us to identify the level of observed digital competence in the area mentioned above.</span></p> Marcos Cabezas-González Sonia Casillas-Martín Ana García-Valcárcel-Muñoz-Repiso Verónica Basilotta-Gómez-Pablos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 25 3 1 21 10.15359/ree.25-3.2 Organizational Learning in Higher Education Institutions. Case Study of a Research Group <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Knowledge is considered today as one of the most important factors in organizations since that allows them to react to changes in the environment, as the establishment of flows within them allows them to be more competitive and innovative. But what happens when that knowledge is in an educational institution, in which, despite being considered its most important asset, the appropriate knowledge networks are not established so that they can respond to these changes, preventing the development of internal and external transfer processes. This original article is derived from the doctoral thesis titled Organizational Learning as a Mechanism of Knowledge Transfer in Higher Education Institutions. <strong>Objective. </strong>To show how university research groups behave as learning organizations to identify the factors that allowed developing that learning. <strong>Method.</strong> For this, a qualitative study of a descriptive-evaluative, non-experimental, single-measure type was designed, in which a triangulation of instruments was used to corroborate and validate the findings through the use of tools such as interviews, surveys, participant observation, and analysis of social networks. <strong>Results.</strong> The results obtained were analyzed with specialized tools for qualitative data as MaxQDA and Ucinet used in mixed research methods. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The study allowed identifying how education institutions and, in particular, research groups could become learnin</p> Vanessa Rodriguez-Lora Juan Manuel Herrera-Caballero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-06 2021-06-06 25 3 1 13 10.15359/ree.25-3.3 Heterogeneity in Involvement in School Bullying: A Latent Classes Analysis <p class="p1">The present study aimed to develop a typology of school bullying through a statistical technique that minimizes the classification error in groups. This typology allows examining how multiple attributes of bullying coexist in people without artificially separating those attributes. Using a latent class analysis, six items that represented the role of the witness, the victim, and the aggressor were modeled in school bullying situations in a sample of 440 Chilean schoolchildren between 14 and 20 years of age (M = 16,30 and SD = 1,42). Two models are reported with four and five latent classes, respectively. In the four-class model, it can be seen a group called “Not Involved” (14,5%) which has not been implicated in any of the roles of harassment; another group called “Witness” (56,2%) which has only been involved as a witness in bullying situations; a group called “Witness and Victim” (13,3%) which has been involved as a witness and victim in school bullying situations; and finally, a group called “Witness, Victim and Aggressor” (16%) which has been involved in all roles. In the five-class model, the same groups are observed, plus one denominated as “Witness and Aggressor” implicated as a witness and aggressor in school bullying situations. The results show that most of the student body has been involved in bullying situations and that an important part has been involved in more than one role, which implies that victimization and perpetration of bullying are not mutually exclusive.</p> Carlos Mellado Pablo Mendez-Bustos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 25 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.25-3.4 Attitudes of Students From a Public University About the Application of the Flipped Learning <p><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="en-GB">The approach called flipped learning has been attracting teachers’ attention in recent years due to its novel way of programming and executing learning sessions, thus making a difference with the traditional model. This approach has been applied in various higher education programs; the results express the achievements that have been obtained in terms of learning thanks to its implementation. The purpose of the present research article is to identify students’ attitudes from the second cycle of General Studies of a Peruvian public university after having experienced the flipped learning in the course Language and Communication in the academic semester 2018-II. This study is quasi-experimental and of a mixed approach. A questionnaire prepared by&nbsp;</span><a href="#_idTextAnchor009"><span class="CharOverride-7" lang="en-GB">Farrah y Qawasmeh (2018</span></a><span class="Bold CharOverride-6" lang="en-GB">) was applied to collect the attitudes of 70 students grouped into two classrooms and developed the subject directed by the same teacher. The results show that most students consider that the pedagogical approach called flipped learning is highly beneficial for their learning because it promotes developing the necessary skills for their professional training. The results also suggest that its effectiveness depends on the students’ autonomy to develop the previous activities and the easy access they could have to the Internet.</span></p> Edith Chambi-Mescco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 25 3 1 18 10.15359/ree.25-3.5 Education of Emotional Intelligence at School-age: An Exploratory StudyFrom the Teaching Perspective <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Currently, there is an educational trend towards an affective pedagogy. For this reason, this paper investigates the knowledge and experience that Primary Education teachers (students between 6 and 12 years old) have on emotional intelligence and their education. <strong>Methodology.</strong> One hundred teachers from Spain participate in this exploratory transactional study. Specifically, the sample obtained through a random non-probabilistic technique has answered a questionnaire from which an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data has been carried out through SPSS and Atlas.ti. <strong>Results.</strong> Concerning the theoretical knowledge about the object of study, 35 codes have been elaborated where 236 textual citations are collected; there is no positive correlation between the daily work of EI in the classroom and the different sociodemographic variables. Data also show that there are educational centers in which emotional intelligence programs are implemented for all courses; on the other hand, there is some internal incoherence in other centers. Finally, there is a significant predisposition to be trained in emotional education. <strong>Discussion and Conclusions.</strong> According to the reference authors, a remarkable part of the sample has an adequate theoretical vision of the concept of emotional intelligence. However, despite the existence of high practical involvement, it is often worked in an informal or not explicit way when the current challenge consists of developing explicit programs. New lines of research linked to the findings of this study are proposed, such as the development of a descriptive and an experimental study.</p> Pedro Antonio García-Tudela Pedro Marín-Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 25 3 1 21 10.15359/ree.25-3.6 A Proposal of Didactic Strategies and Resources by Competencies in Response to Teaching-Learning Styles of the Student Population <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective. </strong>Design strategies and didactic resources by competencies for the Document Management II course of the Office Management and Commercial Education program at the Professional Secretariat School, National University of Costa Rica. <strong>Method.</strong> The process was carried out under a qualitative approach and through descriptive and exploratory studies that allowed knowing the students and academic staff’s opinions. Semi-structured instruments were used to consult about the predominance of sensory systems, the application of strategies, and teaching resources within the course. <strong>Results.</strong> The main findings show that the student population enrolled in the course is aged 19 to 24, with a predominance of visual and kinesthetic sensory systems. It is emphasized that the assimilating and <em>laissez-faire</em> teaching styles and the accommodator and pragmatic learning styles are the dominant ones in this population. In addition, the use of technology, the implementation of tours and educational visits, and the resolution of cases and problems are within the recommended teaching resources for this population. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The student population’s requirement to learn “how to do, formulate, and solve” activities is evident. Therefore, didactic strategies promoting competencies are proposed. It is expected that this research will serve as support for the teaching work and, in turn, will allow the development of management aimed at the educational needs of each student.</span></p> Lizeth Valverde-López Mariam Ureña-Hernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 25 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.25-3.7 Teacher’s Knowledge Experience in Initial Training: Reflections From an Inclusive Education Course <p class="p1">Focusing on teachers’ training is the key to project an inclusive school. This research aims to reflect on the incorporation of knowledge from experience in the initial teacher training, using the history of a teacher as a source that implements an inclusive didactic proposal. Monitoring was carried out during a semester in the course <em>Theory and Practice of Inclusive Education </em>from an Early Childhood Education degree at the University of Barcelona, in which 43 second-year students participated. This is a qualitative research design with a narrative inquiry approach, where 4 phases were designed to arrive at the final research text; phase 1, registration of field texts; phase 2, preparation of intermediate texts; phase 3, return to the field with the intermediate text for further reflections; phase 4, preparation of the final research texts that make up this study. The results show that students approach inclusive projects from a personal dimension when interacting with the knowledge that comes from experience and self-knowledge. On the other hand, some tension arose: difficulty dealing with the freedom granted in class; initially, difficulties sharing their experiences orally and in writing, looking for standardized answers. This study allowed us to analyze an educational practice that is being forged in the construction of spaces for coexistence, which invites new reflections on the knowledge of the experience thinking about the inclusive school.</p> Valeska Cabrera-Cuadros Claudia Soto-García Asunción López-Carretero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.8 An Approach to the Study of Laboratory Work From the Representations of Future Biology Teachers <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>This article presents a study conducted with 111 students of the Biology teacher training program in San Juan Province, Argentina, to know the students’ opinions, investigate their social representations related to the laboratory work, and analyze its impact on the current process and their future teaching performance. <strong>Method. </strong>The study was developed from a qualitative approach. The instrument implemented included a technique of evocation and hierarchical organization and a technique of incomplete phrases. <strong>Results.</strong> The results obtained show that the representations tend to focus on elements related to teaching, learning, and procedural aspects. At the same time, the opinions of the students indicate the scarce realization of experimental practices and the insufficient connection with the theoretical concepts studied. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> These results invite us to reflect on the need to increase and diversify experimental work in Biology teacher training to contribute to the future professional performance of these students at the secondary level.</p> Erica Zorrilla Claudia Mazzitelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.9 actors for the Acceptance and Use of a Learning Management System in Students of an Ecuadorian University <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Despite the proven efficiency of Learning Management Systems (LMS), their success will depend on the use and acceptance of students. Therefore, it is essential to understand the relationship between the factors that determine their use in order to design effective strategies, actions, and initiatives that promote LMS usage. <strong>Objective.</strong> To analyze the factors that influence the acceptance and use of LMS in Ecuadorian university students. <strong>Method.</strong> The final sample consisted of 304 students from four different degree programs at a private university; the students filled out a questionnaire designed based on the Technological Acceptance Model derived from the theory of reasoned action. The reliability and validity of the instrument were analyzed, and then the Partial Least Squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used. <strong>Results.</strong> The instrument showed an adequate internal consistency and a tetrafactorial structure. The results suggest that computational self-efficacy has a positive influence on ease of use and perceived utility. These, in turn, affect attitude towards use, which directly influences the use of the systems. <strong>Conclusion.</strong> The Technology Acceptance Model is suitable for studying factors regarding the use of LMS. On average, students perceive the systems to be easy to learn and use, but it represents little benefit. Given the influence of computational self-efficacy on the proposed model, we recommend taking action to increase student exposure to technological devices and encourage self-motivation by enhancing their skills in these.</p> Juan Carlos Ocampo-Alvarado María Paulina Ullauri-Ugarte ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 25 3 1 21 10.15359/ree.25-3.10 Evaluation of a Proenvironmental Intervention in Primary School students (10-13 age) from Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The current environmental crisis reveals the need to act immediately from the field of environmental education from a very early age. This paper presents a case study that aims to verify the efficiency of an educational intervention to promote pro-environmental attitudes, perception of household recycling behaviors, and knowledge related to proper waste disposal. <strong>Method</strong>. By means of a field experiment with an intergroup design of two randomized groups (experimental and control), a questionnaire was conducted before and after a pro-environmental intervention in a classroom with 75 primary education students. Pro-environmental attitude, perception of household recycling behavior, and level of knowledge about waste disposal at home were evaluated. The reliability of the measures and the effectiveness of the intervention were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. <strong>Results.</strong> The results reveal that, after the intervention, the experimental group (N = 38) –in comparison with the control group (N = 37)– increased its pro-environmental attitude, its perception of the household recycling behavior, and its level of knowledge about waste disposal; this would demonstrate the effectiveness of the conducted pro-environmental intervention. <strong>Discussion. </strong>The proposed educational intervention was designed to generate more knowledge of what could be called responsible ecological behavior, focused on recycling, being especially effective in increasing pro-environmental attitudes related to the eco-knowledge dimension.</p> Belén Torres María Amérigo Juan Antonio García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 25 3 1 16 10.15359/ree.25-3.11 The Network Management Model for Comprehensive Early Childhood Care in Costa Rica: A View From its Actors <p class="p1">This study analyzes the results of a survey carried out among professional coordinators of intersectoral care networks within the framework of the Sistema de Atención Integral e Intersectorial del Desarrollo de Niñas y Niños (SAIID) in Costa Rica. The objective of the survey was to characterize the Costa Rican experience of the network management model from the perspective of its actors. The methodology used has a quantitative approach and reports an exploratory study of non-experimental design. The information was collected through an online questionnaire applying the convenience sampling criterion. The instrument was applied to 43 coordinators of regional and local networks participating in the SAIID initiative. The results show that SAIID’s networking experience has been based on a more flexible intersectoral management model in relation to other traditional, centralist, and vertical models. Participants reported that this model strengthened the development of their leadership skills at all levels. Given the variety of state entities involved, the management processes involved planning efforts and permanent evaluation, supported by care protocols and different tools for the assessment and intersectoral monitoring of childhood development. It is concluded that a management model that is committed to interdisciplinary participation and continuous training of those who are part of the system is a sustainable model that responds to the calls of the national and international community for the care and education of children.</p> Dora Hernández-Vargas Manuel Chacón-Ortiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 25 3 1 22 10.15359/ree.25-3.12 Preparation of Research Staff in Distance Education in Mexico from an Interdisciplinary and Historical Perspective <p class="p1">This article was written with results obtained from the research titled <em>CONACYT as a governing body of the state capacities in the relationship of science with the education sector</em> <span class="s1">(Ramírez Díaz, 2020a).</span> The article analyzes the impact of the implementation of science policy on the formation of the disciplinary education field in Mexico. The theme reviewed in this paper relates the development of disciplines associated with education to institutionalization events of distance education; its objective is to deepen the complexity in the training process of distance education specialists to optimize it. The research method was based on historiography and interviews with postgraduates in education. The results allowed outlining theoretical limits to the formation of specialized academic communities, in which there is a bridge between social and economic demands at the macro level with regulatory processes and the academic culture of the formation groups. The theory of “Social Framework” was used to establish the relationship. The impossibility of placing results empirically and within a specific context that allows us to characterize how “Social Frameworks” operate in academic groups is recognized as limiting. The work produced theoretical information to conduct empirical research on specialized training and established generic fields of the constitution of specialized research communities.</p> José Antonio Ramírez-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.13 The Availability for Work of Master’s Students: A Comparison From the Gender Variable <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> This study focuses on the availability to work of a sector of the university population from a gender perspective. It is a new contribution to the R+D+i Project “Research Challenges: RTI2018-098794-B-C31 DINARISK XXI,” oriented to society’s challenges; It is also a contribution of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) of the European Union. <strong>Objective. </strong>The study has two basic objectives. On the one hand, to know the predisposition towards work of the postgraduate students and, on the other hand, to create a profile of the participants through their personal, formative, and working characteristics. <strong>Method.</strong> To this end, 176 postgraduate students have participated; most of them were women, 109 (61.9%), and 67 were men (38.1%). The methodology based on the comparative analysis (through mean scores, standard deviations, and T-Student) of data from different groups has been used to establish relationships between these groups and explain the variations that occur in them. <strong>Results and conclusions.</strong> The results highlight women’s preference over men for jobs involving a market stand, part-time jobs, and jobs requiring continuous training. The instrument used allows us to characterize the sample regarding its predisposition to employment and the area of knowledge of the Master’s degree the participants are studying. Therefore, this instrument can be used in other studies.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> María José Gómez-Torres Antonia López-Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 25 3 1 17 10.15359/ree.25-3.14 The Training Model of Teachers Within the Sector of Gifted Education, a Research in Latin America <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The education of gifted students in Latin America is still developing; it includes the training process of its professors, a key aspect in the success of specialized schools. <strong>Objective. </strong>The objective was to conduct a four-year qualitative study with teachers, students, and principals to describe and analyze the teacher training process for gifted students in one of the largest differentiated (specialized) schools in Latin America. <strong>Method.</strong> The methodology was qualitative with interviews and field observation for four years; during this period, we developed a descriptive guide for each step of the training process based on member checking, triangulation, verification, and checking against the existing literature. <strong>Results.</strong> Six stages of teacher education were described, which resulted in obtaining a general panorama of how the teachers within gifted schools get trained in a developing country, where formal and accredited processes of teacher formation have not been fully implemented yet. These findings showed strengths and weaknesses in the formative stages of teachers in this special environment that allow keeping in operation special educational centers for gifted students in schools in Latin America. These findings also created an evidence-based guide for the training of future teachers in schools with gifted students, especially when there is no formal training process available locally.</span></p> Andrew Almazán-Anaya Dafne Almazán-Anaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.15 How do University Professors build High Resilience? Case Studies <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Resilience is understood under a triadic perspective as the creation of new strategies from the need to resist in the interaction of personal characteristics, with a stable family environment and a supportive context. <strong>Objective.</strong> To know how university teachers build their high resilience so that they and higher education institutions (HEI) can reduce risk factors and promote mechanisms allowing high levels of resilience and greater time working as teachers. <strong>Methodology</strong>. A qualitative approach of descriptive scope for eight professors of engineering and psychology of public and private HEI from the Mexican southeast who were part of a doctoral work project with a mixed approach. <strong>Results.</strong> First, the importance of professional aspects and the teaching work in building high resilience is identified since these two elements act as protective and risk factors, both internal and external, that allow maintaining resilience. Second, next in importance are personal aspects that function as protectors and risk factors, such as combining teaching with the motherhood of young children. Third, institutional aspects are identified, which are perceived, almost equally, as protective and risky. Finally, social aspects are more perceived by the engineering teaching personnel and the full-time working staff. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The dynamics and bidirectionality of these aspects to build higher resilience levels are corroborated; according to the experiences of the teaching staff, these aspects are perceived as protective factors that mitigate many risks in the form of challenges that current teaching poses to teachers.</p> Teresa de Jesús Sierra-Molina Dora Esperanza Sevilla-Santo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-27 2021-08-27 25 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.25-3.16 Identification of Musical Talent in Schoolchildren of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, Spain <p class="p1">This work arises from the belief in the need to identify the musical talents of schoolchildren; the work follows the axiom of the theory of multiple intelligences that true integral development is achieved attending all the intelligences. The identification was carried out in primary schools of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia (Spain); the schools were selected according to a stratified and multi-stage process. The participants were 932 students between the ages of ten and twelve from different public and private-subsidized educational centers. The instrument used was the Musical Aptitude Test <span class="s1">(Seashore et al., 2008),</span> whose scores obtained were analyzed with the Castelló and Batlle’s High Cognitive Capability Identification Model. In this autonomous community, the results indicate that there are students with musical intellectual resources of high ability and that the highest-rated qualities are tone, rhythm, and time in simple talent and rhythm and time in complex talent.</p> Francisco Rafael Lázaro-Tortosa María Marco-Arenas María Cristina Sánchez-López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 25 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.25-3.17 Design of an Indicator System for the Evaluation and Selection of Applications for People With Autistic Spectrum Disorder <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective: </strong>Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with a wide range of possibilities for development. At the same time, there are numerous applications (apps) aimed at children with autism; so, this proposal aims to offer a list of validated indicators that analyze the strengths and weaknesses of these apps. <strong>Methodology: </strong>The exhaustive analysis of previous studies has allowed the creation of this instrument in relation to the design of the app, its content, and its pedagogical aspects. According to its clarity, coherence, relevance, and objectivity, the system of indicators was validated through an instrumental study of content validity, applying the method of expert and judges’ judgment. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 12 judges scored each of the designed indicators and sub-indicators as good to excellent, with excellent Intraclass Correlation coefficients, significant and strong Kendall’s W inter-judge agreement, and high levels of internal consistency. It was found to be a valid and reliable instrument. <strong>Discussion:</strong> The positive results derived from the validation of the instrument have resulted in a system of indicators composed of desirable criteria for an app for people with ASD. ASD specialists and family members will have an intuitive tool for the selection of apps adapted to the needs of this group, covering different parameters.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Carmen del Pilar Gallardo-Montes María Jesús Caurcel-Cara Antonio Rodríguez-Fuentes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 25 3 1 24 10.15359/ree.25-3.18 Curriculum Integration as a Learning Experience: A Roadmap for Its Implementation in Two Teacher Training Courses in the Area of Primary Education <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> This article systematizes the experience of curricular integration, carried out in 2018 by the teachers of DBJ 402 Didactics of Sciences and Mathematics for Basic Education and DBJ 403 Child Development in I and II Cycle courses, of the Pedagogy career with an emphasis in I and II Cycle of the Basic General Education of the Basic Education Division (DEB). The process organization, its implementation, the teachers’ assessment, and the student perception are developed in this paper. <strong>Objective.</strong> To enrich student training and strengthen the objectives and topics of both courses. <strong>Method.</strong> The phases with the different actions carried out to implement the curricular integration are explained, implementing three strategies that favored the link between knowledge and learning, both for the teachers and the student group. As part of the systematization process of the experience, a questionnaire was applied to gather the students’ perceptions about the experience and determine the strengths and recommendations expressed by the students regarding the carried-out strategies. <strong>Analysis of results.</strong> Implementing this integrative practice required commitment, planning, and a new look at the teaching work by the university faculty, besides the active participation of students. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Implementing these practices represents a challenge for university teachers.</p> Ana Arguedas-Ramírez Maureen Camacho-Oviedo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-01 2021-08-01 25 3 1 18 10.15359/ree.25-3.19 Educational Intervention Strategies in the English Language Classroom for Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Education <p><span class="CharOverride-8">Introduction.&nbsp;</span>This article analyzes the pedagogy of an ESL teacher in a primary school.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Objective.</span>&nbsp;This investigation aims to evaluate the instruction of the ESL teacher, more specifically to analyze the measures implemented with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) learners. All these ideas outline a realistic model in the paradigm of teaching and learning English as a second language with ADHD students.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Methods.</span>&nbsp;Under a desk research scope, the teacher’s instruction is reviewed, several methodologies are&nbsp;<span lang="en-GB">analyzed</span>&nbsp;and put into practice, and the educational practice is modified to adjust the intervention procedures to ensure that all pupils, with or without ADHD, learn ESL.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Results.&nbsp;</span>As a result of this study, several techniques are recommended to teach ESL to ADHD students.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Discussion.</span>&nbsp;Based on the fact that ADHD is a neurobiological disorder where the impact in every person diverges and the possible problematic areas differ from one to another, several activities and techniques are proposed to provide these individuals with the skills they need to acquire English as a second language. Additionally, this article also proposes two cognitive training self-instruction models for children, with and without ADHD, for oral and written activities in ESL.</p> Sandra Moro-Ramos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-03 2021-08-03 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.20 Hispanic Socio-Religious Minorities in Secondary School Textbooks in Spain (1970–2018) <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Western societies face the challenge of introducing and developing educational methodologies in order to ease the integration of minorities and promote the attention to the diversity of an increasingly and heterogeneous group of students. History can contribute to this mission by analyzing the past of groups that were persecuted because of their origin, ideas, or beliefs. <strong>Methods. </strong>This paper examines the narratives and methodologies implemented in the last half-century in the several Spanish secondary education levels to inspect the history of Jew converts and Moriscos, the two main Spanish socio-religious minorities during the Early Modern Period. Conducting the study required analyzing more than thirty school textbooks; these texts were published between 1973 and 2018. They have been used in the legislative context defined by the four applicable education programs from 1970 to the present in the two secondary education levels in Spain (compulsory education and high school). The analysis of these contents was conducted considering their place in the general programming of each educational law, the space occupied by the explanation in each didactic unit, and the interpretation given to the role that both minorities played in Spain during the Early Modern Period. This paper aims to define the argumentative line used to introduce the evolution of both social groups in the teaching of Hispanic history in the 16th and 17th centuries. <strong>Results. </strong>Thanks to examining contents, exercises, and complementary materials, we can verify that the study of both minorities is one of the most important issues in Spanish history in the Early Modern Period. However, it has been observed that, in the last fifty years, there are no significant modifications in textbooks used in secondary education. Both groups are examined prioritizing political and institutional considerations, where the social and cultural issues are relegated to the background. <strong>Discussion. </strong>The persistence of these discursive inertias cannot be just explained from the importance of nationalist narratives in the way our history is narrated, but also on the basis of the obvious lack of connection between taught/learned and researched history.</p> Francisco Javier Moreno-Díaz del Campo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 25 3 1 23 10.15359/ree.25-3.21 Evaluative Practices of Teachers of Special Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities integrated into Regular Schools <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Objective.</strong> The purpose of this research was to know the differentiated evaluation practices implemented by the special education teachers for students with special educational needs deriving from intellectual disability and are integrated into basic general education schools through the School Integration Projects (PIE). The research also analyzed the meanings that the special education teachers attribute to their own practices. <strong>Method.</strong> The research was conducted under a qualitative approach with a multiple case study design. The participants were 10 Special Education teachers in service from nine different educational establishments. The instrument used to gather information was a semi-structured interview. The information was analyzed through the thematic content analysis technique. <strong>Results.</strong> The findings show that most of the differential educators interviewed perform differentiated evaluation procedures for students with intellectual disability; these procedures are aligned with the principles of the general evaluation in order to respond to the special educational needs of the students.<strong> Conclusions</strong>. It is concluded that the centers need to conduct a reflexive analysis of teaching processes and evaluation practices that they implement in order to establish improvements in their dynamics in favor of students with intellectual disabilities who attend regular teaching centers.</span></p> Marcela Bizama Joanna Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 25 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.25-3.22 Socio-Educational Attitudes and Conceptions About the Youngs With Intellectual Functional Disability in the Andalusian School Context <p><span class="CharOverride-8">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;Personal relationships of young people with intellectual functional diversity (IFD) in their different school contexts and personal life are essential for their full inclusion.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Objective.</span>&nbsp;Analyze the social and educational conceptions and attitudes existing, nowadays, in relation to students with IFD.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Methodology.</span>&nbsp;We used a mixed research design, for which we had an incidental sample of 38 teachers from six secondary education schools and 37 professionals from nine social entities of Málaga. The data were collected by two ad-hoc questionnaires and 18 interviews to formal and non-formal educational agents.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Results.</span>&nbsp;The main results show the difficulties of the educational system to attend to diversity. The attention of these students is delegated to professionals supporting the integration. The interpersonal relationships of these young people are usually with other peers with special educational needs (SEN) and are either very limited or based on mockery and bullying. Paternal behavior of the teachers hinders their autonomy and, as a result, we saw that these young have low self-esteem.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Discussion.&nbsp;</span>we propose to improve the self-determination of these young people by raising awareness within the educational community for better conceptions about diversity.</p> María Isabel Negri-Cortés Juan José Leiva-Olivencia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 25 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.25-3.23 Meditation in Educational Places as a Protective Factor Against Violence <p><span class="CharOverride-8">Introduction.&nbsp;</span>This article explores the impact that meditation has on education as a protective factor against violence. The aim is to determine how meditation promotes the development of peace culture in educational centers, and to demonstrate its positive correlation in the education quality. The objective is to clarify whether meditating can favor school environments of peaceful coexistence and conflict resolution contributing to improve the performance and achievements of the school attendants, as well as promoting greater well-being for the rest of the educational community members.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Methods.</span>&nbsp;This is an exploratory qualitative-quantitative constructionist study, based on interviews and questionnaires applied to agents involved in the social process: students, teachers, and volunteers facilitating the meditation technique.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">Results.</span>&nbsp;According to their perception, it is concluded that meditation in educational contexts promotes protective factors against violence, such as patience, sensitivity, emotional balance, well-being, and relaxation. By having calm and harmony, the levels of stress, aggressiveness, anxiety, and impulsivity decrease. It makes people less conflictive, more pleasant, understanding, respectful, sociable, promoting peaceful coexistence. It improves mood and self-esteem. This allows better social interaction: more and better peer relationships, acceptance, respect, collaboration, support, solidarity, and integration.</p> Francesca Randazzo-Eisemann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 25 3 1 18 10.15359/ree.25-3.24 Formative Assessment in Primary and Secondary Physical Education Classes From Novel Teachers’ Perspective <p class="p1"><strong>Aims. </strong>To value how formative assessment processes are used by novel teachers in physical education classes. <strong>Methods. </strong>A case study with four graduates (less than three years of teaching experience) was conducted; they have developed their teacher education in European Higher Education Area and currently teach in primary or secondary physical education classes. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations, and documentary analysis. <strong>Results. </strong>The results show that systematic formative assessment processes are not carried out, although they introduce small changes in the assessment practices that give an alternative approach to the formative assessment, moving away from the traditional ways of assessment in physical education. In addition, the difficulty of adjusting all the elements of the assessment processes and making students see the importance and usefulness of these processes is highlighted in the first teaching years. <strong>Discussion. </strong>The results found in this study should serve as a reference to adjust the initial training to the needs and difficulties shown by novel teachers in order to facilitate their transition to the teaching profession in the application of formative assessment processes.</p> Laura Cañadas María Luisa Santos-Pastor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.25 Teachers’ perceptions from a school in Lima about difficulties in children with visual impairment when learning Braille <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> To explore difficulties, according to teachers’ opinion, visually impaired elementary students have when learning Braille at Louis Braille School in Lima. Moreover, it is important to identify how much students’ contexts can influence their learning. Furthermore, an analysis on how the school agents (the administration and teachers) can cause an impact when learning Braille will be conducted. Additionally, there will be a mention of how the external factors (government and society) can also cause influence. <strong>Method.</strong> Following a qualitative approach, all elementary teachers from the school were interviewed. These interviews were recorded and later transcribed so they could be codified. <strong>Results.</strong> Among the most important discoveries, five main difficulties were found related to national and institutional management in support of visually impaired people, resources, and parental participation in the life of a visually impaired child, children with multiple disabilities besides being visually impaired, teaching materials, and, last, teachers’ collaboration and specialization. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> In conclusion, those five difficulties are the most predominant, and they can undermine the student’s performance.</p> Nuria Alexandra Ávalos-Gómez Esther Giovanna Ordaya-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 25 3 1 21 10.15359/ree.25-3.26 Developing Visible Thinking and Motivation Through the Curricular Design of an Escape Room in Higher Education <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The term escape room has undergone a notable evolution in recent years, extending its presence to areas not only recreational but also business or educational. The defining traits (overcoming obstacles, problem-solving, teamwork, time management...) have proven to be valid in business and education. This study presents the pedagogical design of an escape room based on visible thinking and analyses its effect on the motivation and cognitive processes of higher education students. <strong>Method.</strong> For this purpose, a quasi-experimental research with pretest/post-test was conducted, and it was evaluated whether the instructional design of the escape room was adequate to enhance the learning of the 238 students, whether it was motivating, and whether it contributed to the development of cognitive processes. We used two structured questionnaires with multiple-choice questions and one questionnaire with open-ended questions. We also applied a mixed method for quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. <strong>Results.</strong> The results show that the students consider the characteristics of the escape room and the organization of its elements to be of high quality; they also show that the curricular design of the escape room enhances students’ learning. In particular, the students consider that they have developed group thinking, critical thinking, and the activation of prior knowledge through the escape room and have found it a motivating experience. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The use of the escape room in educational environments has a high educational potential. This is not only because it encourages the development of higher-order cognitive processes but also because it contributes to teamwork, self-regulation, and student motivation. However, it must be designed as a significant part of the didactic program, taking special care in the development of competences and thinking.</p> Naiara Bilbao-Quintana Arantzazu López-de la Serna Ainara Romero-Andonegui Eneko Tejada-Garitano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 25 3 1 20 10.15359/ree.25-3.27 Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Principals of Public Educational Institutions in Barrios Altos, Lima, Perú <p class="p1"><strong>Objective.</strong> This research aims to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in principals of regular basic education institutions in Barrios Altos, Lima. <strong>Method.</strong> A non-experimental research design was used, with a descriptive orientation of the study event, for which the Maslach Burnout Inventory was applied to 22 principals from a management team of public educational institutions, which constitute 100% of the study population. <strong>Results.</strong> A medium level of emotional exhaustion, a low level of depersonalization, and highly personal accomplishment have been found. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The prevalence of burnout syndrome in the group of principals is low, but moderate levels of exhaustion are found emotional, which are a feature that, if maintained over time, could lead to burnout. This work constitutes a preliminary research contribution, leaving the way for future studies related to school management and burnout syndrome.</p> Juan Pablo De la Guerra-De Urioste Deyanira Annel Goicochea-Rojas Pablo César Torres-Cañizalez John Kendry Cobo-Beltrán ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 25 3 1 17 10.15359/ree.25-3.28 The principle of Science Didactics. A Narrative Investigation <p><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Objective.</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-7" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;Teaching science has undergone considerable development, and, in this sense, the objective is to explain, otherwise if possible, the principles of the science, making use of the didactics, philosophy of science or, also, the narrative.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Methodology.</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-7" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;The methodology chosen was to know and understand what university teachers linked to this area of knowledge think, live, or feel about science and didactics. In this sense, the qualitative information inspired by the dialogue, the personal or social-educational life lessons explains and gives to understand, differently, counting on the own experience and subjectivity of the informant.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Analysis of results.</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-7" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;However, in relation to the analysis of results, it is essential to know how to interpret scientific knowledge in order to understand the world and not to become neo-excluded individuals from the 21st century. We present a didactic proposal of science in an integral way; that not to set abysmal gaps between science and humanities, because science itself is a human construction and not a product. And, for this reason, we raised the need for literacy and educate, scientifically, to the proactive and participatory citizenship in connection with life.&nbsp;</span><span class="Bold" lang="es-ES">Conclusion.</span><span class="Bold CharOverride-7" lang="es-ES">&nbsp;We present the need to develop a model of scientific culture to grow as a person and generate knowledge close to the values (social and environmental), and away from instrumental or instruction. So, we stand for education and scientific knowledge that exceeds the transmissible model by another more comprehensive and quotidian one.</span></p> Víctor Amar-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-12 2021-08-12 25 3 1 18 10.15359/ree.25-3.29 The Situation of Music Education Research in Mexico. Challenges, Reflections, and Proposals <p>&nbsp;</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Today’s world demands from higher education institutions to have researchers that generate new knowledge, promote its diffusion, and foster linking programs with society in order to stimulate changes and contribute to the solution of its problems. <strong>Goal. </strong>The goal of this literature review was to determine the current situation of music education research in Mexico. A systematic documentary search was conducted to achieve this goal. Thus, primary sources providing information on the subject were located in various databases, repositories of theses and dissertations, web pages, and texts. <strong>Method. </strong>The methodology used was the analysis of content, assisted by the software ATLAS TI 8.0, through which the gathered information was classified, structured, and analyzed; a general scheme was created, and conclusions were generated. <strong>Results</strong> indicate there have been some important achievements. However, the number of researchers in music education is very small; many of them are not fully qualified; there are no national journals specialized in that field of research; bibliography by national authors is limited, and academic meetings are scarce. Finally, the 2019 Registry of the National System of Researchers indicates only three Mexican scholars have that distinction. <strong>Conclusion. </strong>Despite the impact that music education can have on the individual, there is an important lag in this field of research. Therefore, the author proposes that higher education institutions implement continuing education programs for researchers to support their full qualification and develop strategies to bridge the gap between research and society.</p> Raúl Wenceslao Capistrán-Gracia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 25 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.25-3.30 Documentary Research on Body and Corporeity at School <p class="p1">This documentary research synthesizes the scientific production carried out between 2013 and 2018 about the meanings of body and corporeity in the school context and other contexts. The references come from the Scopus databases, the Latin American Repositories Network of the University of Chile, and the online repositories of eight Chilean University Libraries. The searches were conducted in the areas of social sciences, arts and humanities, and psychology through the following descriptors: <em>corpo, body, cuerpo and educación, cuerpo and educación física, corporalidad, corporeidad and imagen corporal, assessment, and conceptions and representations.</em> One hundred Scopus articles were selected, and 152 documents were captured from the repositories. The findings showed seven focuses of research interest referring to studying the body in the school context, the theoretical-methodological approach, a line in the progress of approach to the subjective dimension of the body, body practices outside of school, representation of the body in the media, the sociocultural view of the body, and finally, the study of sex, gender, and the body. In conclusion, in international references, the positivist paradigm prevails with a biomedical conception that emanates from different contexts. In the Latin American references, the body study associated with the school prevails; although, from a transversal view, there are indications of generating knowledge about the subjective and expressive dimension of the body. It is still necessary to investigate listening to the diversity of people as social actors in view of potential improvements in educational policies that protect the dignity and social justice of the bodies.</p> Lylian Iris González-Plate Camila Belén Sepúlveda-Gallardo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 25 3 1 16 10.15359/ree.25-3.31 Engineering Professors’ Perceptions on Personal, Professional, and Institutional Components Involved in Their Training <p class="p1"><strong><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong>This article is about education in engineering, focused on faculty members’ training process in engineering majors at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. The objective relies on analyzing personal and institutional factors and the training process related to the engineering faculty training. The methodology used a survey as an instrument. The survey was done on 51 professors from ten engineering majors; the professors were selected by simple random sampling. Likert scales, multiple-choice questions, and open questions were applied to collect data. A visualization technique was implemented to represent the recurring concepts. The approach of this research was descriptive and oriented to explain particularities about the training of faculty members in a specific context. Variables were determined, such as the satisfaction of achievement activities, the topics proposed to be included in the activities mentioned above, the ideal qualities of engineering faculty members, and other variables that have repercussions in training for faculty performance. The results contributed criteria to identify the areas of training of the faculty and constitute activities to encourage engineering faculty development. It can be concluded that the satisfaction of the faculty is adequate with the achieved development. The results provided a basis for continuing research with a transformative scope, through specific proposals to enhance faculty training according to their personal and professional needs and in agreement with society’s current demand.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Fernando Banda-Muñoz Arnulfo Treviño-Cubero Aldo Raudel Martínez-Moreno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 25 3 1 22 10.15359/ree.25-3.32 Parents’ Perceptions on Male Teachers in Peruvian Preschool Education <p><strong>Objective.</strong> This article aimed to explore parents’ perceptions concerning the low presence of men at the initial level and their teaching practice in these educational spaces. <strong>Method.</strong> A qualitative and exploratory research approach was used. A semi-structured interview was conducted with fathers and mothers of public and private initial-level educational centers in Lima (Peru). The information was analyzed inductively and classified into categories that responded to the objective of the investigation. <strong>Results.</strong> The main results that emerged from this process were the following: a) the role of society in the teaching exercise of the initial level; b) the female domain and her maternal role; c) distrust of the relationship between men and the care of young children; and d) the male as a figure of discipline, authority, and play. <strong>Discussion.</strong> This study introduces dialogues in relation to the link between male and childhood and opens an opportunity for schools to direct their change strategies in order to reduce the male gender gap in this teaching context. It also provides the basis to develop future research on the impact of this group on children and their immediate surroundings, knowing their perceptions as key educational actors.</p> Astrid Cruz Adaliz Hugo Marcos Fernando Ruiz-Ruiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 25 3 1 19 10.15359/ree.25-3.33 Digital Competences in Secondary Education Teachers in a Province of Central Peru <p class="p1"><strong>Objective:</strong> Analyze the level of achievement of digital competencies in secondary education teachers according to gender, age, and working conditions. <strong>Method:</strong> The research has a quantitative approach and a descriptive cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 247 teachers from public educational institutions of a province in the central region of Peru. Information was collected through an elaborated instrument based on the proposal of the <span class="s1">Intef (2017)</span> that assesses digital competencies grouped into five areas. <strong>Results:</strong> The results show that teachers have a satisfactory level of achievement in the digital competencies of Internet navigation, search and filtering of information, data and digital content (50.2%), development of digital content (42.5%), curriculum integration (46.2%), and health protection (44.9%). In the other digital competencies, teachers have a level of achievement in progress. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that teachers are in the process of developing digital competencies, and there is a significant difference in relation to the variables of gender, age, and working conditions.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jhon Richard Orosco-Fabian Rocío Pomasunco-Huaytalla Wilfredo Gómez-Galindo Edwin Salgado-Samaniego Deysi Alina Colachagua-Calderón ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-26 2021-08-26 25 3 1 25 10.15359/ree.25-3.34 Mathematics as a Male Domain: A Study of Perception in Costa Rican Secondary Education <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction. </strong>The results of a study on the perception of mathematics as a male domain in official day high school students in Costa Rica are presented. The study was conducted to evaluate the need to develop intervention programs that promote that women have the same capabilities as men in mathematics. “Male domain” is understood as the belief that men have better conditions than women to learn mathematics and, in general, to perform in environments related to that discipline. <strong>Method. </strong>This descriptive quantitative research studies the variable by sex, educational level, or school location area, applying the scale Mathematics as a male domain by <span class="s1">Fennema and Sherman (1976).</span> The sample consisted of 3,581 students in 2018 (50.8% female), selected by simple cluster sampling. In the data analysis, the statistical techniques of Student’s t and Welch (complemented with the Scheffé test) were used. <strong>Results.</strong> Differences were found between men and women, with men showing higher levels in the variable, with a moderate effect size. Differences were detected between the seventh and eighth level students with those of the ninth, tenth and eleventh levels, with higher values for the first two levels. Differences were also found between schools located in urban areas and those in rural areas, showing higher levels of perception of mathematics as a male domain in the latter, with a moderate effect size. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The research reveals that approximately 84% of the students have low to very low levels of perception of mathematics as male dominance, which is seen as a positive finding. The results suggest the convenience of developing intervention programs that promote that women have the same competencies as men in mathematics.</p> Luis Gerardo Meza-Cascante Zuleyka Suárez-Valdés-Ayala Evelyn Agüero-Calvo Rodolfo Jiménez-Céspedes Martha Calderón-Ferrey Laura Sancho-Martínez Patricia Pérez-Tyteca Javier Monje-Parrilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-28 2021-08-28 25 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.25-3.35 The Teaching of Reading and Cognitive Mediation in Students of Academic Average: A Correlation Study <p class="p1"><strong>Objective. </strong>This scientific research article aims to determine the relationship between the ICT-supported reading process and the cognitive mediation of high school students. The cognitive mediation to which a student is exposed in their school development involves a series of factors such as intentionality, significance, and the feeling of competence that can be analyzed based on reading activity. <strong>Methodology</strong>. This research with a quantitative approach established the correlation between the ICT-supported reading process and cognitive mediation. A stratified sample with tenth- and eleventh-grade students from a public school was selected. The data were obtained from the application of a survey-type technique, developed in a questionnaire format instrument with a Likert scale. The data were submitted to an expert review, plus normality test, in SPSS, determining Pearson’s coefficient. <strong>Results.</strong> Statistical data revealed difficulties in fluency and the feeling of competence of cognitive mediation. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is possible to affirm that there is a low positive correlation between the ICT-supported reading process and intentionality, significance, and the feeling of competence.</p> Alba Luz Arenas-Parada Libardo Roa-Muños Jairo Abelardo Centeno-Villamizar Kenier Iván Téllez-López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-26 2021-08-26 25 3 1 26 10.15359/ree.25-3.36 Semantic Construction of the Concept Challenges for Sustainable Cities and Communities by University Students <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> Today, the environmental problem requires our society to take immediate action. Thus, the Sustainable Development Goals were pronounced in 2015 to guide human development in the world, where sustainability is privileged. <strong>Objective. </strong>The purpose of this article is to show the semantic representation of the challenges that arise to meet the goal of 11 sustainable cities and communities through the perspective of college students. <strong>Method.</strong> The inquiry was exploratory; this was done using the methodology of natural semantic networks and including 59 young college students from the life sciences area of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. <strong>Results.</strong> The population was 66.1% women and 33.9% men, and the ages were between 18 and 28 years old. The main challenges expressed by the participants were air pollution, litter, water pollution, deforestation, car trafficking, lack of green areas, and overpopulation. There was also a 75% similarity between the expressions commented by women and men. <strong>Discussion</strong>. Verbal expressions referred to by university students determine the presence of a semantic memory that recreates the conjunction of their experiences, ideas, and perceptions in relation to their environment. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is concluded that the construct edified by the students is consistent with the goals of goal 11 subscribed to the 2030 Agenda.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Pedro César Cantú-Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-28 2021-08-28 25 3 1 12 10.15359/ree.25-3.37 Assessment and Educational Quality: Advances, Limitations and Current Challenges <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This essay discusses current advances, challenges, and limitations about educational assessment and quality. For this purpose, the assessment role in educational processes improvement and their effects on educational quality was identified.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Main findings show that conceptions about assessment and their applications in education have advanced; they have contributed to the continuous progress of education practices. Likewise, educational quality has been related to reflexive changes through contextual practices. However, at present, some limitations on purposes, methods, scopes, and potential uses of assessment for educational quality persist. Hence, challenges relate to the intended, rigorous, and pertinent relationship between assessment and educational improvement.</span></p> Dania Liz Mejía-Rodríguez Ever Javier Mejía-Leguía ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 25 3 1 14 10.15359/ree.25-3.38 Education for Change in a Hyperconnected Society: When the Other is Virtualized <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction.</strong> The hyper-information society does not involve or imply hyper‑knowledge, not even simple knowledge. The sensation of asphyxiation before the continuous bombardment of the otherness, which is not necessarily of the other or the others, makes the sentient person perceive that thinking demands an extra effort to discriminate the useful from the unnecessary. <strong>Objective. </strong>With this essay, we intend to reflect on the socio-personal elements of our current culture that question the educational task, demanding new answers but, above all, a return to the dialogical origins, since, more than ever, we feel surrounded without identifying, many times, who is or are surrounding us. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The information appears in an apparently free form, without apparent intentionality, without goals, and without a dialogical purpose. The face-to-face is blurred in virtual images without natural texture, representing something that satisfies and conforms to today’s consumer. The illusory takes shape and interacts like someone holding a fishing rod with its prey at the other end: waiting patiently, masterfully using the art of deception –knowledge–, knowing when to wait and not necessarily whom to wait for with a narrative sense. In the face of this, the importance of critical and conscious thinking are fundamental strategies to defend a principle of ontological reality. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Education plays a decisive role in the network of the virtual because we are still talking about physical people and, especially, about education with a clear purpose of change for an entire life.</span></p> Francisco José García-Moro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 25 3 1 16 10.15359/ree.25-3.39 Contribution of the Educational Evaluation for the Democratic and Transformative Formation of the Student <p class="p1"><strong>Purpose.</strong> In this article, educational evaluation is analyzed as a theoretical-practical field of knowledge for the democratic and transformative formation of students. <strong>Discussion.</strong> The discussion on educational evaluation focuses on criticism of positivist-technological approaches limited to the value complexity of learning processes. Likewise, they have relieved evaluation approaches for learning as a way to question and reinterpret positivist evaluative theory and practice. However, the debate has marginalized the role of evaluation in its ethical-political dimension for the construction of democratic subjects. The central argument argues that a transformative evaluation with a sociocultural and democratic approach enables the formation of participatory, committed, and reflective subjects. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> It concludes with the importance of re-signifying the evaluation as a practice not only concerned with the valuation of learning but also oriented to the formation of aspects in terms of values and attitudinal, ethical, and democratic aspects, in order to contribute to the construction of students aware of themselves, of others, and their role in society.</p> Daniel Ríos-Muñoz David Herrera-Araya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-12 2021-08-12 25 3 1 15 10.15359/ree.25-3.40