The Hydration Status of Female Collegiate Soccer Players Over Consecutive Training and Match Days
Purpose: Hydration has been shown to play a pivotal role in sport. Soccer is a team sport in which the integrity of all players is vital for team performance; thus, individual player hydration status is important. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the hydration status of female collegiate soccer players during regular season.
Methods: Sixteen collegiate female soccer players (age: 20.4 ± 0.8 years; height: 163.6 ± 6.9 cm; weight: 65.3 ± 12 kg) provided urine over 9 days to monitor their hydration status. Hydration was determined by urine specific gravity (Usg). Usg was analyzed in the morning (AM) and in the afternoon before practice/game (PM).
Results: All 16 players were at least minimally hypohydrated (Usg > 1.010) in the AM on 5 of the 9 days tested. Players had significantly higher Usg values in the AM as compared to PM (F(1,250) = 23.09; p < 0.0001); however, there was no significant time*day interaction (F(1,250) = 1.98; p = 0.16).
Conclusion: Data show a high prevalence of hypohydration occurring in this specific population. This sub-optimal hydration status could be a cause for concern in terms of overall performance. Efforts should be made to integrate hydration interventions and daily monitoring to minimize hypohydration in players.
Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. K., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V., Rich, B. S., Roberts, W., & Stone, J. A. (2000). National athletic trainers' association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. J Athl Train, 35(2), 212-224. PMID: 16558633.
Castro-Sepulveda, M., Astudillo, J., Letelier, P., & Zbinden-Foncea, H. (2016). Prevalence of Dehydration Before Training Sessions, Friendly and Official Matches in Elite Female Soccer Players. J Hum Kinet, 50, 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0145
Chapelle, L., Tassignon, B., Aerenhouts, D., Mullie, P., & Clarys, P. (2017). The hydration status of young female elite soccer players during an official tournament. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(9), 1186-1194. https://doi.org/10.23736/s0022-4707.16.06527-0
Edwards, A. M., & Clark, N. A. (2006). Thermoregulatory observations in soccer match play: professional and recreational level applications using an intestinal pill system to measure core temperature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(2), 133-138. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.021980
Edwards, A. M., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Dehydration: cause of fatigue or sign of pacing in elite soccer? Sports Medicine, 39(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939010-00001
FIFA. (2019). Women’s Football MA’s Survey Report 2019. https://img.fifa.com/image/upload/nq3ensohyxpuxovcovj0.pdf
Gibson, J. C., Stuart-Hill, L. A., Pethick, W., & Gaul, C. A. (2012). Hydration status and fluid and sodium balance in elite Canadian junior women's soccer players in a cool environment. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37(5), 931-937.https://doi.org/10.1139/h2012-073
Kilding, A. E., Tunstall, H., Wraith, E., Good, M., Gammon, C., & Smith, C. (2009). Sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in international female soccer players during game specific training. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(6), 443-447. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105945
Logan-Sprenger, H. M., Heigenhauser, G. J., Killian, K. J., & Spriet, L. L. (2012). Effects of dehydration during cycling on skeletal muscle metabolism in females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(10), 1949-1957. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825abc7c
Maughan, R. J. (2003). Impact of mild dehydration on wellness and on exercise performance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57 Suppl 2, S19-23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601897
Maughan, R. J., Merson, S. J., Broad, N. P., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2004). Fluid and electrolyte intake and loss in elite soccer players during training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 14(3), 333-346. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.333
McCambridge, J., Witton, J., & Elbourne, D. R. (2014). Systematic review of the Hawthorne effect: new concepts are needed to study research participation effects. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(3), 267-277. https://10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015
McDermott, B. P., Anderson, S. A., Armstrong, L. E., Casa, D. J., Cheuvront, S. N., Cooper, L., . . . Roberts, W. O. (2017). National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for the Physically Active. J Athl Train, 52(9), 877-895. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-52.9.02
McGregor, S. J., Nicholas, C. W., Lakomy, H. K., & Williams, C. (1999). The influence of intermittent high-intensity shuttle running and fluid ingestion on the performance of a soccer skill. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(11), 895-903. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365452
Montain, S. J., & Coyle, E. F. (1992). Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 73(4), 1340-1350. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1918.104.22.1680
Murray, B. (2007). Hydration and physical performance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 26(5 Suppl), 542S-548S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2007.10719656
Osterberg, K. L., Horswill, C. A., & Baker, L. B. (2009). Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition. J Athl Train, 44(1), 53-57. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-44.1.53
Phillips, S. M., Sykes, D., & Gibson, N. (2014). Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions. J Sports Sci Med, 13(4), 817-822.
Rothenberg, J. A., & Panagos, A. (2008). Musculoskeletal performance and hydration status. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med, 1(2), 131-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12178-008-9020-9
Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 377-390. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597
Volpe, S. L., Poule, K. A., & Bland, E. G. (2009). Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes. J Athl Train, 44(6), 624-629. doi: https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-44.6.624
Self-archiving policy: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet. More information in the following link: https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/25815https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/25815
The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.
The editorial source must be recognized.
MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica license.