MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud 2021-07-29T17:15:06-06:00 Mag. María Amalia Penabad-Camacho Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="tlid-translation translation">E-ISSN: 1659-097X</span></strong> <br><strong>MHSalud Journal:&nbsp;Journal of Human Movement Sciences and Health</strong> is <span class="tlid-translation translation">a scientific, bilingual and multidisciplinary publication.</span>&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation translation">Its <em>objective</em> is to disseminate quality scientific knowledge generated in the field of Human Movement Sciences and Health through a digital, scientific, international and multidisciplinary journal.&nbsp; It is <em>oriented at</em> professionals in the Human Movement and Health Sciences as well as the general public. It is indexed in: SCOPUS, SciElo, Redalyc, LATINDEX, DOAJ, OAI, Livre, DIALNET, DRJI and in the Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI). MHSalud Journal does not charge for admission, processing or publication of articles.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publisher: </strong>Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida, Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publication Frecuency:</strong> <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Biannual as a volume (First number on January 1<sup>st</sup> and second number on July 1<sup>st</sup>)</span></span><br><strong>Areas and Descriptors:</strong> The <em>areas</em> of the Journal <span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>are all those related to the Human Movement and Health sciences such as: Human Movement, Health, Physical Activity, Physical Education, Physical Health Promotion, Exercise Physiology, Motor Behavior, Sports Performance, Human Movement Medicine, Therapy Physics, Nutrition and human movement, Psychology and human movement among others.<br><strong>Contact</strong><strong> Email</strong>:&nbsp;<a href=""></a> <br></span></p> Physical Demands of Costa Rican Professional Soccer Players: Influence of the Playing Position and the Competitive Level 2021-06-30T01:00:03-06:00 Roy Morera-Barrantes Carlos Calderón-Chaverri Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas Daniel Rojas-Valverde Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Vargas Jose Alexis Ugalde Ramìrez <p>Monitoring physical demands during soccer matches with GPS technologies provides valuable information that can be used to enhance sports performance. Therefore, this study aimed to know Costa Rican professional soccer players' physical demands and analyze the influence of the playing position and the competitive level during matches. Sixty male soccer players, 50 from the first division of Costa Rican soccer and 10 from an absolute national CONCACAF (SAC) team were monitored with a Global Positioning System (GPS) to quantify kinematic variables such as distance traveled (m), total and different intensities (Z 1-5), maximum speed (km/h), total impacts (g), accelerations (m / s) and decelerations (m/s). The game positions were categorized into defenses (Def), midfielders (Mid) and forward (For), and the competitive level in a) SAC, b) Elite level teams (ENE), and c) Sub-elite level teams (ENS). The results reflected significant differences regarding the competitive level in the distance traveled at different intensities Z1 (SAC &gt;ENS &gt;ENE), Z2 (ENE &gt;SAC &gt;ENS) and Z4 (ENE &gt;SAC &gt;ENS), in accelerations (SAC &gt;ENE &gt;ENS), and in decelerations (SAC &gt;ENS &gt;ENE). By game positions, the differences were in the total distance (Mid &gt;Def &gt;For), in the distance traveled in Z2 (Mid &gt;Def &gt;For) and Z3 (Mid &gt;Def &gt;For), as well as in total impacts (Mid &gt;Def &gt;For). It is concluded that the competitive level influences the physical demands. SAC registered more accelerations and decelerations, and ENE traveled a greater distance with moderate and intense efforts. There were differences between playing positions; midfielder traveled longer distances and recorded more impacts.</p> 2021-06-30T01:00:03-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of Variables that Determine Levels of Self-Esteem in Central American Schoolchildren: A Binary Logistic Regression Model 2021-07-29T17:15:06-06:00 Carlos Álvarez Bogantes María Fernanda Herrera-Monge Emmanuel Herrera-González Gerardo A. Araya-Vargas <p>The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between the levels of self-esteem of Central American schoolchildren and their physical activity habits, ages and countries of origin. This was a correlational study of random cluster probabilistic samples, which evaluated 5,291 students enrolled in fourth, fifth and sixth grades, 52.3% of whom were girls and 47.7% boys, from 74 schools in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama, with an average age of 10.90 ± 1.13 years. Lawrence’s Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) was used to measure levels of self-esteem, and the physical activity questionnaire for boys and girls (PAQ-C) was applied in all the countries. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the statistical probability that the independent variables (age, level of activity and country of origin) could predict the level of self-esteem. The results of this investigation showed that 47% of the children studied perceive themselves to have a low level of physical activity, and that children from 9 to 10 years had lower percentages of self-esteem with 51.6% and 47.7%, respectively. In terms of country of origin, children from Costa Rica and Guatemala have a better level of self-esteem than those living in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and Panama. In addition, it was determined that age, level of physical activity and country of origin predicted 58% of the level of self-esteem of Central American children. This shows the importance of promoting physical activity in childhood to contribute to the development of self-esteem.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reasons for Child Physical Inactivity: A View from Children, Parents, and Coaches 2021-07-08T12:29:55-06:00 Mydori Harumi Tellez Vasquez Diana Betancourt Ocampo Ana Laura Jaimes Reyes Héctor Igor Rubio Sosa Alejandro González González <p>Physical activity from childhood and throughout adult life allows a low-risk profile to be maintained compared to many conditions. This study aimed to identify the difficulties that lead to physical inactivity in children. For the study, there was a sample of 2,621 children from 13 cities in the country, 3,754 parents of these children, and 134 coaches from different schools in the Mexican Republic. A questionnaire of 17 open and closed questions was used to obtain children's information; the questionnaire was an adaptation of the instrument <em>State of Play: Youth Sports Survey</em> (The Aspen Institute, s.f.). Parents were asked what they felt might be the main challenges they had in fostering physical and/or sporting activity in their children. Finally, coaches were asked the main reasons why children do not play sports or physical activity. In the general sample of children, the results showed that the main aspect of their physical inactivity relates to responsibilities; parents mentioned, as the main cause, the lack of time, and coaches reported misused the technology.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ludic Social Interaction During Forward Head Posture Therapy Causes More Attendance to Physical Therapy Sessions in Older Adults 2021-07-07T15:56:42-06:00 Sebastián Astorga Verdugo Fernanda Borges Silva Soledad González-Silva Aldo Martínez Araya Germán Rojas Cabezas <p><strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> This study aimed to compare the attendance to postural reeducation physiotherapeutic treatment sessions with ludic social interaction for the forward head posture in older adults with the attendance to sessions without this ludic social interaction. <strong><em>Material and methods:</em></strong> The study used an experimental, longitudinal design. Eighty-eight participants met the following participation criteria: older adults &gt; 60 years and &lt; 90 years, craniovertebral angle &lt; 50 degrees, and neck pain &lt; 3 VAS. They were randomly divided into two groups: a control group that received a postural reeducation physiotherapeutic treatment for forward head posture without ludic social interaction, and an experimental group that benefited from a postural reeducation physiotherapeutic treatment with ludic social interaction. Both groups were subdivided according to age ranges 60-69, 70-79, and ≧ 80 years. Physiotherapeutic treatment for both groups lasted 4 months, completing 32 sessions (2 weekly sessions). <strong><em>Results:</em></strong> There were statistically significant changes in the comparison of assistance to physiotherapeutic treatment between the two groups (p &lt;0.05). The experimental group presented an average attendance to the treatment of 83% versus the control group that presented an average attendance to the treatment of 76%. There were no statistically significant changes according to the intra-and intergroup age range (p&gt; 0.05). <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The experimental group that underwent the postural reeducation physiotherapeutic treatment with long-term ludic social interaction showed greater attendance to physiotherapeutic treatment versus the control group without ludic social interaction in older adults with forward head posture. <strong><em>Practical applications:</em></strong> Developing a long-term physiotherapeutic treatment program adding ludic social interaction can have beneficial results in attending physiotherapeutic treatment sessions.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Link Between Body Composition, Sprint, and Vertical Jump in Young Elite Soccer Players from Chile 2021-07-07T17:50:11-06:00 Jorge Pérez-Contreras Pablo Merino-Muñoz Esteban Aedo-Muñoz <p>The study aimed to know the relationships between indicators of body composition and physical performance in elite young players and determine if there are differences between playing positions and series. The sample was of selected U-15 (n=24) and U-17 (n=20) male players, divided by playing position. Body composition, fat mass percentage (%MG), and muscle mass percentage (%MM) indicators were evaluated. Also, Squat Jump (SJ), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), linear velocity in 10 (T10) and 30 meters (T30) were evaluated. Body composition and physical performance variables were related, and differences between playing positions and between categories were sought. Significant large associations were found in the U-15 category between %MM with SJ and CMJ and moderate associations between %MG with T10, SJ, and CMJ. In the U-17 category, a significant large association was found between %MM and T30 and between %MG and T30. Significant differences in %MG were found in the U-17 category between goalkeepers vs. defenders and forwards. Moderate significant differences were found in %MM between categories and very large differences in T10 and T30, and a moderate difference in SJ. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the body composition %MM and %MG is related to physical performance. In addition, there are differences in %MG between goalkeepers vs. outfield players and differences in body composition and physical performance variables between U-17 and U-15 players. The results obtained can be used as a reference or as parameters for comparing young players at the national level in the detection of talent.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Precompetitive Anxiety and Motivation in Costa Rica Elite Swimmers 2021-07-07T15:15:45-06:00 Mikaela Haase <p>This study aims to describe the management of precompetitive anxiety in elite Costa Rican swimmers aged 14 to 22 years old, identifying the motivating elements (external and internal) and how the relationship with their coach and their peer group influences the processes of motivation and precompetitive anxiety. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by the end of 2018. The results suggest that among the main elements associated with greater feelings of anxiety are the lack of objectives achieved before the competition, having a poor performance during training, and being aware of the importance of the respective competition. The elite swimmers’ motivations have been classified as intrinsic (Olympic competition, time improvement, placement in rankings) and extrinsic (family, coach, team) ones. Finally, results suggest that a bad relationship with the coach and peer groups could result in a loss of interest in training and competing. In conclusion, when presenting precompetitive anxiety, performance can decrease, causing non-fulfillment of objectives, which leads athletes to demotivate, maintaining anxiety for their next competitions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Precompetitive anxiety, Motivation, Swimming, Sport Psychology. </strong></p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neuromuscular Prevention Strategies for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Basketball Players. A Narrative Review 2021-07-07T18:59:48-06:00 Cinta Gómez-Tomás Tamara Rial Rebullido Iván Chulvi-Medrano <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries have a higher incidence in adolescent female athletes. The characteristics of basketball (jumping and landing), together with women's biomechanical and hormonal characteristics (greater valgus at the knees, joint laxity, and menstrual cycle), make us find ourselves before a population sector of special interest to implement neuromuscular prevention programs. The objective of this study has been a literature review to propose neuromuscular prevention programs for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female basketball players. <strong>Material and method:</strong> The search was conducted in the PubMed, SportDiscus, and PEDro databases between December 2019 and January 2020. The keywords "anterior cruciate ligament," "neuromuscular training," "injury rates," "basketball," and "women" were used as search criteria. <strong>Results:</strong> 20 articles selected according to the inclusion criteria were analyzed; these studies provided information on risk factors and prevention programs for common anterior ligament injuries in healthy women and athletes. The information obtained was classified according to the preventive strategy provided. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>A neuromuscular prevention program for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female basketball players should be based on four main aspects: lower limb strength training, plyometrics, feedback on the landing, and central trunk work.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Cheerleading Training: A Descriptive Study 2021-07-07T20:03:39-06:00 Paul Ulloa Sánchez Jessenia Hernández Elizondo <p>The <strong>objective</strong> of the present study was to answer the following questions: are the energy expenditure equivalent in terms of METs of cheerleading training sessions and what Ainsworth et al. (2011) show? Are there statistically significant differences in the energy expenditure and intensity of cheerleading training when comparing different performance and sex categories?</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Energy expenditure and intensity were measured during one hour of cheerleading training for a sample of 103 cheerleaders (men = 55; women = 48), who belong to three all-star teams and two national teams from Costa Rica.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: No differences were found between the value reported by Ainsworth et al. (2011) and cheerleading workouts (6 METs vs. 5.8 METs, t = -1.7, p = 0.092). A significant interaction of energy expenditure (kcal) between sex and performance category was evident.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The energy expenditure in terms of METs for cheerleading workouts is equivalent to that reported by Ainsworth et al. (2011). Men with a “high” performance category had significantly higher energy expenditure (p &lt;0.05 *) compared to men with a “medium” or “low” category and with women in all three categories. No differences were found in terms of intensity when comparing sex and performance category.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relation Between Anthropometric Muscle Mass Characteristics of Lower Limbs and Jump Power in Young Athletes 2021-07-07T21:12:29-06:00 Luis Benavides-Roca Cristian Salazar Orellana Gastón Díaz Coria <p>Regional anthropometry turns out to be an important procedure in the projection of the athlete’s performance. The objective of the present study is to relate the anthropometric characteristics of the lower limbs of the body with the jumping power of young athletes. A correlational methodology was used to evaluate 44 youth athletes (30 men and 14 women). They were measured for jump height in 90° squat (SJ), countermovement with fixed hands (CMJ-MF), and countermovement with free hands (CMJ-ML). These variables derived into the power calculation. With this, we established the anthropometric characteristic of lower body parts linked to skinfolds and perimeters, obtaining values of mid (MMED) and maximum thigh (MMAX), corrected calf perimeter (PCP), quadriceps muscle section area (ASMC), hamstring muscular section area (ASMI), and total section of the muscular thigh area (ASMM). The results showed a significant correlation between the corrected calf perimeter and the jump power in SJ (<em>r</em>=0.73; <em>p</em>=0.00), CMJ-MF (<em>r</em>=0.72; <em>p</em>=0.00) and CMJ-ML(<em>r</em>=0.7; <em>p</em>=0.00). In conclusion, the calf perimeter presented related components to the young athletes’ jumping power.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Means of Initiation to Training in The Design of Tasks in Soccer in The School Age (U12) 2021-07-07T22:03:32-06:00 José Martín Gamonales Miguel Ángel Salgado-Santos Sergio José Ibáñez <p>Currently, studies around the organization of training processes through tasks have become one of the emerging lines in Sports Sciences. Therefore, the present paperwork aimed to analyze the way of acting of a technical body of a soccer team in school age, U12, as well as to know the relationship of the <em>means of initiation to training</em> and the <em>pedagogical</em>, <em>external load,</em> and <em>organizational </em>variables that influence the design of homework. For this, a total of 177 training tasks framed during five competitive months were examined. In order to categorize the tasks, the <em>Comprehensive System for the Analysis of Training Tasks</em> was used to study the variables identified by the technical staff. A descriptive and difference analysis was conducted of the variables proposed in the study with the <em>training initiation medium</em>. The results demonstrated the existence of associations between the <em>training initiation medium</em> and the variables <em>game situation</em>, <em>game phase</em>, <em>content-type</em>, <em>specific content</em> (<em>pedagogical</em>). Associations were also identified/found in the variables density, number of simultaneous performers, competitive load, game space, and cognitive involvement (external load), and the participation variable (organizational). Associations were also found in the variables <em>density</em>, <em>number of simultaneous performers</em>, <em>competitive load</em>, <em>game space, and cognitive involvement</em> (<em>external load</em>), and the <em>participation </em>variable (<em>organizational</em>). Therefore, these results show the importance of knowing the restrictions related to the workload of training tasks. In addition, they provide the technical body with information on an easy, affordable, and informative tool to quantify workload. This method should be considered as a complement to portable devices for training load control and monitoring in invasion sports.</p> 2021-07-01T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##