MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="tlid-translation translation">E-ISSN: 1659-097X</span></strong> <br><strong>MHSalud Journal:&nbsp;Journal of Human Movement Sciences and Health</strong> is <span class="tlid-translation translation">a scientific, bilingual and multidisciplinary publication.</span>&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation translation">Its <em>objective</em> is to disseminate quality scientific knowledge generated in the field of Human Movement Sciences and Health through a digital, scientific, international and multidisciplinary journal.&nbsp; It is <em>oriented at</em> professionals in the Human Movement and Health Sciences as well as the general public. It is indexed in: SCOPUS, SciElo, Redalyc, LATINDEX, DOAJ, OAI, Livre, DIALNET, DRJI and in the Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI). MHSalud Journal does not charge for admission, processing or publication of articles.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publisher: </strong>Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida, Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publication Frecuency:</strong> <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Biannual as a volume (First number on January 1<sup>st</sup> and second number on July 1<sup>st</sup>)</span></span><br><strong>Areas and Descriptors:</strong> The <em>areas</em> of the Journal <span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>are all those related to the Human Movement and Health sciences such as: Human Movement, Health, Physical Activity, Physical Education, Physical Health Promotion, Exercise Physiology, Motor Behavior, Sports Performance, Human Movement Medicine, Therapy Physics, Nutrition and human movement, Psychology and human movement among others.<br><strong>Contact</strong><strong> Email</strong>:&nbsp;<a href=""></a> <br></span></p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud 1659-097X <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="sherpa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span><strong><span class="" title="">General conditions</span></strong></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a></span></span></p> <p>MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a <a href="">Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica</a> license.<span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><br></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.</span><br><span class="" title="">The editorial source of the journal must be recognized. Use the doi identifier for this purpose.&nbsp;<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><strong>Self-archiving policy</strong>: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet.</span> <span class="" title="">More information in the following link:&nbsp;<a title="sherpa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></span></p> Absence of Reliable Screening Methods That Prove the Use of Gene Doping in Sports <p>Sport raises the level of human physical activity within the limits of genetic traits. The results of gene therapy have attracted some to think of using its technologies to create an “indomitable athlete.” World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) applies uncertain genetic testing procedures to establish cases of this type of doping. Yet, if the results of these procedures are doubtful, then doubt must be interpreted in favor of the athlete concerned.</p> Ahmad Saad Ahmad AL-Dafrawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 3 10.15359/mhs.20-1.14 Effects of a Sensorimotor Training Program on Static Equilibrium in Swimmers with Down Syndrome and Intellectual Disability <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study seeks to determine the effect of a sensorimotor training program on static equilibrium in swimmers with Down syndrome and intellectual disability.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> <em>Participants:</em> a total of 13 swimmers. <em>Instruments and materials</em>: the Modified Clinical Test for Sensory Integration for Balance, a Wii device with a platform, and a computer with a program to analyze the center of gravity were used in the study. <em>Procedures:</em> a pretest was applied, then a neuromotor training was delivered for four weeks, in three sessions of 30 minutes each, and finally, a posttest was applied. Since they were active athletes, they continued their routine without altering the training load. Statistical analysis: descriptive statistics and a two-way ANOVA (2x2, measures and groups) were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> there were no statistically significant differences between the variables measured (F = 0.14, p = 0.7162) or per groups (F = 0.2, p = 0.6659) for the variable <em>open eyes</em> on a stable surface. For the variable <em>closed eyes</em> on an unstable surface, there were significant differences between the variables measured (F = 0.952, p = 0.350) and between groups (F = 6.066, p = 0.320), while for <em>open eyes</em> on an unstable surface there were no differences between the variables measured (F = 0.852, p = 0.376) or between groups (F = 2, .484, p = 0.143). For the variable <em>closed eyes</em> on a stable surface there were no significant differences between the variables measured (F = 0.716, p = 0.415) or between groups (F = 0.801, p = 0.390). It was found that this training in this population produced an improvement (p &lt;0.05) for the variable <em>closed eyes</em> on a stable surface 0.32.</p> Milena Hernández Chacón Andrea Mora Campos Juan José Ramírez Ulloa Fabián Víquez Ulate ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 12 10.15359/mhs.20-1.6 Wearable Sports Technology Development in Costa Rica: Inertial Measurement Unit Integration for Real-Time External Load Monitoring <p>The increasing trend and projection for the use of wearable sensors technology in the general population have led to the development of different inertial measurement units (IMU) to monitor activity and motion variables during exercise or sports. This study aims to systematize the practical experience of developing an inertial measurement device to quantify external load in real time for runners. This article shows the installed capacity of Costa Rican higher education institutions to integrate existing sensors available in the international market in a single device to program it and use it for different sport science purposes. Two scientific laboratories joined resources and integrated an interdisciplinary team composed of exercise physiologists, sports scientists, physiotherapists, and electromechanical engineers who globally faced the challenge of creating SafeRun IMU. In this case, an IMU was constructed with great success, capable of quantifying external load variables controlled from a mobile device in real-time. The results showed an acceptable agreement and reliability of the data extracted from the IMU. The information collected from this IMU could be used to control and quantify external load to develop or redirect exercise programming and prescription and prevent overuse injuries or physical overload conditions. This device differs from other existing ones due to its small size and portability, which benefits its commercialization and massification.</p> <p><br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Victor Chavarría-Fernández Daniel Rojas-Valverde Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas Carlos Meza Miguel Méndez-Solano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 13 10.15359/mhs.20-1.1 Level of Physical Activity Carried Out in Students From Subsidized Private Establishments in The Community of Talcahuano in Time Of Confinement <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: due to the worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), authorities have chosen to confine their citizens as an epidemiological containment measure, considerably reducing physical activity levels in the adolescent population.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The evidence indicates the importance of physical activity in mental health, development of motor skills, improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, cognitive functions, increased self-esteem, and quality of life in adolescence. Considering the importance of physical activity and, specifically, the insufficient levels of physical activity in the adolescent population, the question of the levels of physical activity performed by high school students in subsidized private schools in the district of Talcahuano during the period of confinement was raised.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: 152 males and 177 females between 14 and 17 years of age from three subsidized private schools in the municipality of Talcahuano were evaluated. A digital questionnaire was administered on the day of distance learning.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean questionnaire score was 2.37 ± 0.68. The obtained score classified the students as inactive since they had values lower than 2.75 on the PAQ-A questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine the differences in median questionnaire scores for male and female groups. The median was statistically significant between the groups p= 0.001. A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare the age groups. As a result, the median was not significantly different between age groups, P = 0.224.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: men are, on average, more physically active than women, and there is no difference in the median age between 14 and 17 years in the confinement periods.</p> Yohana Valeska Parra Sepúlveda Yusari Abigail Pereira Doupouy Natividad Victoria Jofré Vásquez Bryan Sebastián Alfaro Castillo Oscar Andrés Andrades ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 9 10.15359/mhs.20-1.2 Aiken’s V Coefficient: Differences in Content Validity Judgments <p><strong>Objective</strong>: When two independent groups of expert judges study content validity, a formal test of the differences between their judgments is required, since different content validity judgments can be obtained. But generally, content validity research does not examine this likely source of discrepancies. This report describes the implementation of a method to evaluate the difference in Aiken's V coefficients&nbsp;applied to research work in sports science.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The procedure applies an adaptation to construct the confidence interval of the difference between Aiken’s V coefficients and also implements a standardized estimator of the size of the difference between the V coefficients, specifically the arcsine transformation of V coefficients.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In a secondary data analysis framework, two examples are developed, extracting data from both publications, and the difference between the impressionist-based conclusion and the empirical-based conclusion and formal evaluation is demonstrated. Statistical differences not previously observed were detected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and implications</strong>: The method to estimate differences in Aiken’s content validity coefficients for research allows an advance in the methodology to validate measurement instruments. The applicability of this procedure in the context of sports sciences and education sciences, as well as in the research design involved, is assessed.</p> Cesar Merino-Soto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 10 10.15359/mhs.20-1.3 Physical Education: The Right to a Quality Education <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The right to education is a human right, and Physical Education is the discipline that teaches at the body level.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To present the right to quality Physical Education.</p> <p><strong>Development</strong>: The human being is a biological entity immersed in a physical environment. Because of the conditions of their biology, human beings have to be in movement to ensure their permanence, satisfy their primordial needs, and carry out all the characteristics of living beings. Outside the biological sphere, they need to have a relationship with their surrounding environment and other beings; so, by keeping moving, they can meet different needs, such as psychosocial needs. In this way, through movement, people relate to their environment and peers, satisfying needs that allow them to survive and exist; movement becomes an inherent part of humanity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Promoting teaching at the physical level is part of a human right in order to educate throughout the life course, thus, contributing to the integral development of people through quality Physical Education.</p> Irina Anchía Umaña ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 10 10.15359/mhs.20-1.4 Obesity Indices in Women with Breast Cancer in Cauca, Colombia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Obesity has become a problem that accentuates cancer processes. So the objective was to identify the level of obesity through adiposity indices in women with breast cancer in the department of Cauca-Colombia.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: A correlational descriptive study with 126 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The measures for the analysis of body adiposity were the conicity index, body adiposity, abdominal volume, and the CUN BAE equation, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences. The data collected were processed in SPSS, obtaining measures of central tendency and dispersion, such as the Pearson statistic with a significance of p&lt; 0.05 and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the sensitivity and specificity of adiposity tests, considering ethical and legal aspects.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 31.78% of women evaluated presented type IIb cancer. Invasive cancer in axillary lymph nodes, with menarche ages 13.50±2.33 years. An overweight average was observed according to a BMI of 26.91±4.87 Kg/m2. Concerning the waist circumference (46.02%) and the ICC (58.72%), they did not show risk in these variables. Very high positive correlations were identified between waist circumference and adiposity indices (R=0.992), conicity index (R=0.858), and WHR (R=0.845).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It was possible to establish that a high percentage of women with breast cancer were overweight, identifying risk situations related to the fat accumulated around the waist, which is related to other adiposity indices. The tool identified as useful corresponded to the index of conicity with statistical significance.</p> Nancy Janneth Molano-Tobar Andrés Felipe Villaquirán-Hurtado Dolly Ximena Molano-Tobar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 12 10.15359/mhs.20-1.5 Effect of Exercise in Aquatic Environments on Physical Fitness in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Exercise programs in aquatic environments guarantee a motivating and fun environment in which people with intellectual disabilities can carry out sports or recreational activities in an accessible way, which has a positive effect on their physical condition.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of the systematic review was to know the effects of aquatic exercise on physical fitness in people with intellectual disabilities.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> To achieve the purpose of the study, a literature search was conducted in the Sport Discus, Science Direct, Scopus, and PubMed databases, whose publications cover from 2009 to 2018. As selection criteria, these publications had to specify the type of exercise, the components of a load of training, the type of disability presented by the study subjects, and the duration of the intervention that should be greater than four weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only five studies met the selection criteria. The studies in which they applied swimming interruption and combined exercise showed that components of physical fitness important for health were improved, as well as the development of activities of daily living. It was concluded that studies with greater methodological rigor are required to clarify the effect of exercise in aquatic environments on the components of physical fitness in people with intellectual disabilities.</p> Maria Antonieta Ozols Rosales Jeffry Tames Fonseca Maria Antonieta Corrales Araya José Moncada Jiménez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 11 10.15359/mhs.20-1.7 Self-Perception and Body Image Dissatisfaction about BMI and Fat Percentage Among Male and Female Chilean University Students <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>One of the factors that conditions body weight is the perception of body image. In university students, eating fast food can generate disorders in the self-perception of body image, such as underestimation or overestimation of nutritional status, leading to disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and suicide attempts.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the self-perception of body image, body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat between women and men from the Chilean Adventist University.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>A comparative descriptive study of cross-sectional design applied to 150 regular students of the Adventist University of Chile, Chillán (UnACh). Anthropometric evaluations (BMI and skinfolds), application of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and the Montero Anatomical Model Test (MAM) were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the main findings, there were differences between men and women both in the BSQ and in the fat percentage, but not in the MAM and in the BMI, where no significant differences were found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The women evaluated have higher body dissatisfaction and fat percentage than university men; however, both men and women have body self-perception that adjusts to their BMI, with no significant differences between the sexes.</p> Edwin Inzunza Rosales Cinthia Díaz Tapia Esteban Valenzuela Manríquez Yovely Gutiérrez Vergara Bárbara Baier Riquelme Iván Molina-Márquez Claudio Hernàndez-Mosqueira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 10 10.15359/mhs.20-1.8 El ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms analysis on agility test in national players in team sports of Costa Rica. Pilot study <p><strong>Objective: &nbsp;</strong>To analyze the differences in the polymorphisms of the ACE and ACTN3 genes on agility test performance in elite players of collective sports from National teams of Costa Rica.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> a sample of 33 male team sports players (futsal, rugby, volleyball, and handball). All subjects were tested with the Illinois Agility Test. Two days of measurements were made; on the first day, cell samples were obtained and on the second day, the agility test was applied. The Chi-square test (x<sup>2</sup>) was used to determine the differences between the frequencies of the polymorphisms of the ACE and ACTN3 genes and the type of sport.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The highest distribution of polymorphisms of the ECA gene of players from national teams of collective sports was found in the ACE ID (X2 = 6.87, p = .334), and in ACTN3 the RX (X2 = 6.33, p =. 388). Furthermore, no significant relationship was found between the Illinois test performance and the polymorphisms of the ECA gene (F = 2,150, p = .134).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms were not statistically related to the type of team sport. Agility is not associated with the type of polymorphism, which indicates that regardless of the gene, this physical quality can be trained and generate good results in the general population.</p> Rafael Carvajal-Espinoza José Trejos-Montoya Emmanuel Herrera-González Carolina Alemán-Ramírez Magally Márquez-Barquero Jorge Cervantes-Sanabria Tyrone Loria-Calderón Guillermo Miranda-Benavides Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 10 10.15359/mhs.20-1.9 Home Advantage and Effects of Scoring First in The Costa Rican Professional Soccer. Analysis of Championships 2012/13 - 2018/19 <p><strong>Objective</strong><em>:</em> to analyze home advantage and the influence of scoring first on match outcomes in 14 Costa Rican professional soccer championships from 2012/13 to 2018/19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><em>:</em> 1848 games were analyzed considering the match outcome (winner, draw, or loser), the localization (home and away), and the order of scoring (first and second). Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were applied.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><em>:</em> it was shown that home teams achieved a greater number of victories (<em>Z=</em> -4,51; <em>p&lt; </em>0,01) and scored more goals (<em>Z=</em> -4,51; <em>p&lt; </em>0,01) than the away teams. Home advantage was 62.46%, and this did not differ significantly among the championships (<em>H= </em>10,86<em>; p= </em>0,62). The advantage of scoring first was 78.86% for home teams and 72.26% for away ones. When the home team scored the first goal, they won 73.73% of their matches, while the away teams ended up winning 58.12% of their matches (<em>χ</em><em><sup>2</sup></em>= 53,674; <em>p&lt;</em> 0,001; <em>phi=</em> 0,17, <em>V</em>= 0,17). The top 4 teams in the ranking scored more goals and won more games at home and away and had a superior first-scoring advantage when playing away compared to the teams occupying the other positions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><em>:</em> playing at home and scoring the first goal represented an advantage for teams to achieve positive results in the Costa Rican soccer championships analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Implications</strong><em>:</em> these results can guide the coaching staff to propose strategies for front-facing matches at home and away.</p> José Alexis Ugalde Ramìrez Óscar Milton Rivas-Borbón ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 13 10.15359/mhs.20-1.10 Biochemical and Physiological Responses in Sedentary Subjects During the Evaluation of Maximum Oxygen Uptake <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The use of incremental exercise tests (IET) to evaluate the individual’s acute responses is an essential tool in Physical Activity Science.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This paper aims to analyze the behavior between biochemical and physiological variables as aerobic-anaerobic transition indicators during two incremental exercise tests, which measure the maximum oxygen uptake in healthy subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The sample consisted of two individuals, who were thirty-three and twenty-five years old, respectively. During the execution of the tests, the following materials and tools were used: a portable glucometer, a portable lactometer, reactive tapes, a treadmill, a stationary Cycle Ergometer Monark®, a heart rate monitor Polar®, a gas analyzer, software Breeze®, a computer, tools for recording data, and a pencil.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; the high inverse correlation between the Glycemic index and VO<sub>2</sub> (r: -0,853) and the Glycemic and CO<sub>2</sub> (r: -0,851) are notable. Moreover, the detection of thresholds for each subject through blood lactate invasive and non-invasive methods, such as heart rate (HR), is also shown.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A clear explanation of Respiratory Quotient (RQ) behavior is given during the Cycle-ergometer test, concluding that this type of protocol is safe for the group under study and that the validity of the results is in accordance with theoretical expectations.</p> Jesús León Lozada-Medina José Rafael Padilla-Alvarado Manuel de Jesús Cortina Nuñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 14 10.15359/mhs.20-1.11 Analysis of Game Situations in the Design of Tasks in Training Basketball <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Currently, knowing how to conduct training activities is essential to optimize player training. Therefore, one of the strategies most used by coaches to optimize the training process is to modify the number of players (Game Situation).</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of the study was to analyze the teaching-learning process of a school-age basketball coach, as well as to know the association between the Game Situation and the Pedagogical, External Load, and Organizational variables used that influence the design of tasks.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> For this, a total of 20 training sessions consisting of 100 tasks, recorded through the Comprehensive System for the Analysis of Training Tasks, were analyzed. A descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted between the variables raised in the research in relation to the Game Situation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results demonstrated a significant relationship between the variables analyzed with the Game Situation. The way the players are grouped during the development of the training tasks conditions the results of the rest of the variables that define a training task at a pedagogical, organizational, and external load level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These pieces of evidence vindicate the importance of knowing the factors that influence training tasks. In addition, the results show that there are differences in the use of game situations depending on the rest of the variables used.</p> José M. Moreno-Ariza David Mancha-Triguero José M. Gamonales Sergio J. Ibáñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 13 10.15359/mhs.20-1.12 The educational practices of physical educators for students with special educational needs during the pandemic <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The article analyzes the situation of students with special educational needs (SEN) who have limited their physical activities (PA) due to confinement, a situation that forces teachers to design new educational practices adapted to virtuality.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the educational practices of physical education (PE) for primary level students with SEN during the pandemic in the Dominican Republic.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A qualitative, exploratory, cross-sectional, qualitative approach was used by means of a survey, using non-probabilistic sampling and content analysis with semantic networks. The study consisted of 45 teachers, who provided information on their academic teacher training, student enrollment, methodologies, strategies used and resources of the teaching process.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results reflect the teachers' interest in their professional activity, as opposed to the lack of support from specialists in the classroom and a low knowledge of teaching, methodologies and strategies used from virtuality for PE aimed at students with SEN. On the other hand, most teachers did not use educational facilities for physical activities, technology was used with assistance guided by family and adults at home, especially with group physical activities in family.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Academic activities were carried out from home and have been affected by the lack of suitable conditions for an academic space and the lack of technological resources. Teacher training in the area of PE for students with SEN should be promoted.</p> Miguel Israel Bennasar-García Leonor Mariana Duque Fernández Haifa Ariana Martínez Nadal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 20 1 1 18 10.15359/mhs.20-1.13