MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="tlid-translation translation">E-ISSN: 1659-097X</span></strong> <br><strong>MHSalud Journal:&nbsp;Journal of Human Movement Sciences and Health</strong> is <span class="tlid-translation translation">a scientific, bilingual and multidisciplinary publication.</span>&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation translation">Its <em>objective</em> is to disseminate quality scientific knowledge generated in the field of Human Movement Sciences and Health through a digital, scientific, international and multidisciplinary journal.&nbsp; It is <em>oriented at</em> professionals in the Human Movement and Health Sciences as well as the general public. It is indexed in: SCOPUS, SciElo, Redalyc, LATINDEX, DOAJ, OAI, Livre, DIALNET, DRJI and in the Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI). MHSalud Journal does not charge for admission, processing or publication of articles.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publisher: </strong>Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida, Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.</span><br><span class="tlid-translation translation"><strong>Publication Frecuency:</strong> <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Biannual as a volume (First number on January 1<sup>st</sup> and second number on July 1<sup>st</sup>)</span></span><br><strong>Areas and Descriptors:</strong> The <em>areas</em> of the Journal <span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>are all those related to the Human Movement and Health sciences such as: Human Movement, Health, Physical Activity, Physical Education, Physical Health Promotion, Exercise Physiology, Motor Behavior, Sports Performance, Human Movement Medicine, Therapy Physics, Nutrition and human movement, Psychology and human movement among others.<br><strong>Contact</strong><strong> Email</strong>:&nbsp;<a href=""></a> <br></span></p> en-US <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="sherpa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span><strong><span class="" title="">General conditions</span></strong></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a></span></span></p> <p>MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a <a href="">Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica</a> license.<span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><br></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.</span><br><span class="" title="">The editorial source of the journal must be recognized. Use the doi identifier for this purpose.&nbsp;<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><strong>Self-archiving policy</strong>: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet.</span> <span class="" title="">More information in the following link:&nbsp;<a title="sherpa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></span></p> (Mag. María Amalia Penabad-Camacho) (UNAWEB Department) Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0600 OJS 60 Accuracy and Reliability of Inertial Devices for Load Assessment During Flywheel Workout <p>There is currently an increase in inertial flywheel application in strength training; thus, it must be monitored by an accurate and reliable device. The present study tested: (1) the accuracy of an inertial measurement device (IMU) to correctly measure angular velocity and (2) its inter-unit reliability for the measurement of external load. The analysis was performed using Pearson Correlation and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The IMU accuracy was tested using Bland-Altman and the reliability with the coefficient of variation (CV). Ten elite-level football players performed ten series of 5 repetitions in a one-hand standing row exercise (5 series with each arm). A nearly perfect accuracy (ICC=.999) and a very good between-device reliability (Bias=-.010; CV=.017%) was found. IMU is a reliable and valid device to assess angular velocity in inertial flywheel workout objectively.</p> Jose Pino-Ortega, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Carlos Gómez-Carmona, Daniel Rojas-Valverde (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Nov 2021 15:53:42 -0600 Effects on the wellness state in the period of confinement due to COVID-19 in professional soccer players <p>This study aimed to find changes in the wellness state, during the confinement period due to COVID-19, in professional soccer players from the first division B of Chile. The studied sample consisted of 28 professional male soccer players aged 26 ± 6.3 years, body mass 74.2 ± 5.5 kg, and height 177 ± 0.05 cm. The degree of well-being was evaluated through a questionnaire (McLean et al., 2010) during the 2020 competitive and confinement periods. Statistically, significant differences (p &lt;0.05) between the competitive period and the confinement period are shown in FT (t = 2.5; p = 0.0), SO (t = 2.71; p = 0.01), ES (t = 5.07; p = 0.0), EA (t = 1.82; p = 0.08), and T (t = 4.87; p = 0.0). Small TE were reflected in the variables EA and DM (d = 0.7; d = 0.4 respectively), moderate in FAT and SO (d = 1.0; d = 1.2 respectively), and very large in ES and T (d = 2.1; d = 2.0 respectively). The CP and CV between periods for the well-being variables were the following: for FAT, 11% and 11.6%, for DM, 5.3% and 13.1%; for SO, 9.3%; 7.5%, ES 11.6% and 5.9, for EA 3.9%; 5.2%, and finally for T 8.1% and 4.0% respectively. It is possible to conclude that the state of well-being in professional soccer players is altered in the period of confinement with respect to that of competition, finding significant changes in the variables FT, SO, ES, and T, which coincided with the changes from moderate to very large of these same variables, as well as the PC were larger than the CV between periods. Therefore, we could consider these changes as real, and they could be an effect attributable to the mandatory isolation.</p> Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Jorge Pérez-Contreras, Felipe Adasme-Maureira, Esteban Aedo-Muñoz (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:32:49 -0600 Effects of an Eccentric Training Protocol on Speed Performance in Chilean Adolescents <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The specialized literature has described the benefits of strength training on running speed. In the same way, stimulation of training based on eccentric contractions has been shown to be effective in improving this quality. <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the effects of a training protocol based on the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and another on eccentric contractions (Nordic curl) on the running speed in 20 meters in adolescents from the Ñuble Region, Chile. <strong>Methodology</strong>: 42 school subjects were divided into experimental group (n = 22) and control group (n = 20). The training was developed for 6 weeks, with a frequency of 2 sessions/week, going from a volume of 8 to 32 repetitions of Nordic curl per session for the experimental group. The speed performance was evaluated in 20 meters. With photocells, the T Student's was applied to compare the pre- and post-intervention results, and the effect size (ES) was calculated. <strong>Results</strong>: Statistically significant differences were found (p &lt;0.05) from the intervention in the experimental group (pre= 3,43 s. vs post= 3,15 s.), and a large ES (1,04). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is concluded that the eccentric training based on the application of Nordic Curl improves the performance of the running speed.</p> Edgardo Angulo-Gómez, Javier Hernándiz-González, Moacyr Portes-Junior, Claudio Hernández-Mosqueira, Felipe Andrés Hermosilla-Palma (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:51:40 -0600 The Performance of Powerlifting Athletes During Their Lifetime <p>This research performed data mining for men and women powerlifters for the categories of Equipped Powerlifting, Classic Powerlifting, Equipped Bench Press, and Classic Bench Press, recognized by the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). It then conducted a nonlinear regression analysis based on age versus mean scores in terms of Wilks Points, IPF Points, and IPF GoodLift Points to obtain the fitted curve and the age of peak performance for each category. Overall, the performance for all categories of men and women in powerlifting and bench press starts with exponential growth from youth until close to the third decade, showing a peak performance between 27.67 to 31.50 years of age, and then a linear decrease during maturation and older age. Comparisons between men and women and between equipped and classic athletes do not show meaningful differences in age of peak performance, suggesting the same biological clock in terms of aging. The sport of powerlifting offers a useful model to study human beings' growth, maturation, and aging.</p> José Alfredo Hernández Ugalde (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:50:34 -0600 Aerobic Versus Concurrent Exercise on Interleukin-6 in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease: A Systematic Review <p>Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to be beneficial for the survival of patients with CAD and the decrease in interleukin 6 (IL-6). However, there is little evidence of the effect of concurrent training (CT). <strong>Purpose:</strong> To analyze the effect of AE versus CT on IL-6 in patients with CAD. <strong>Methodology:</strong> It was developed based on the PRISMA agreements; scientific articles were searched through electronic databases. The search terms (Boolean phrase) were the following: ("coronary artery disease" OR '' cardiac disease '' OR "cardiovascular disease") AND ('' exercise '' OR '' training '' OR "cardiac rehabilitation") AND ("IL-6" OR "Interleukin-6" OR "inflammatory markers") NOT ("animals" OR "rat"). The searches were conducted between August and December 2019. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 2516 studies were reviewed, of which 10 studies that met the eligibility criteria were included. A total of 413 patients were analyzed. An improvement was found between 5% and 74% with the AE and between 2.3% and 58.8% with the CT. Both modalities significantly decrease IL-6, regardless of age, weekly training sessions, and the initial stage of patients with CAD; however, those studies that used a high intensity or a volume greater than 30 minutes showed greater benefits. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Both EA and CT are beneficial in reducing IL-6 in patients with CAD. This systematic review leaves the possibility of continuing to investigate the behavior of high intensity in the decrease of IL-6.</p> José Andrés Trejos-Montoya (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:16:56 -0600 Influence of Balance on the Quality of Life of People with Down Syndrome in School and Adult Ages: A Literature Review <p>The study aims to conduct a bibliographic and structured review based on the results found around the influence of balance on the quality of life of people with Down Syndrome (DS) in school and adult ages. For references searching, the following keywords were used as descriptors: “<em>Down Syndrome</em>,” “<em>Balance</em>,” and “<em>Quality of life</em>.” The words were always introduced in English and computerized databases; SCOPUS, WOS, and SPORTDiscus were used. Four inclusion criteria were introduced to limit the search: i) <em>mentioning the influence of balance on the QOL of people with DS</em>, ii)<em> taking exclusively into consideration scientific articles, iii) having access to the full text or abstract</em>, and iv) <em>being written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish</em>. In conclusion, the documents about the influence of balance in people with Down Syndrome address different research topics. Of the thirty-four articles located in the first search, seven of them meet the inclusion criteria. The reviewed scientific literature shows that the practice of physical exercise and specific training produce improvements in balance and the quality of life of people with Down syndrome, which allows establishing the recommendation to specifically train balance during physical activity sessions since there is evidence of positive effects for this group.</p> Luisa Gámez-Calvo, José Martín Gamonales, Kiko León, Jesús Muñoz-Jiménez (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:49:57 -0600 Auditory Perception Processes and Motor Learning. Bibliographic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> At the neurophysiological level, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the limbic system are important in the coordination and memory of movement. <strong>Objective:</strong> Understanding the processes involved in the sensoperceptive relationship of hearing and motor learning is a permanent motivation of different disciplines. <strong>Method:</strong> A documentary review is presented; it aims to analyze the relationship between auditory perception and motor learning using content analysis from the perspectives of audiology, medicine, and neurorehabilitation. The keywords and combinations taken into account were the following: hearing perception, learning, balance, coordination, and combinations hearing-learning, hearing-balance, and hearing-coordination. The databases and metasearchers Pubmed, Medscape, Trip, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Pedro, Scielo, and Lilacs were used. Virtual libraries such as SINAB, Cochrane, University of Malaga, UsNational Library of Medicine, and National Institutes of Health were also consulted. We selected 22 articles that met the inclusion criteria. <strong>Results:</strong> A relationship was found between auditory perception and motor learning in the communication of auditory and motor sensory information at the level of processing in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, being a fundamental part of the retention and motor transfer. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the motor learning process involving the experience of movement, we propose the participation of hearing by integrating the perceived signals –visual, auditory, motor, and vestibular– that are concretized to improve learning, making it more effective, generating a more lasting memory.</p> Olga Lucia Montoya Hurtado, Gladys Iliana Serna, Oswal Martínez Moreno (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:45:04 -0600 Perception of Effort and Objective Levels of Intensity in Physical Education Classes of Primary Schoolchildren According to Gender and Nutritional Status: A Pilot Study <p>This study focuses on the analysis of perceived effort and time of moderate and vigorous activities in physical education classes, considering differences based on gender and the nutritional status of schoolchildren. A total of 95 children in 5th and 6th grade of primary school in the city of Coyhaique, Chile, participated in the study. The EPInfant scale was used to assess the perceived effort, and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers were used to determine the time of moderate and vigorous activity. No significant differences were found in the perceived effort by gender (<em>p</em>=0.144); instead, by nutritional status, obese students indicated a higher perceived effort than students with a normal weight (<em>p</em>=0.220). Regarding moderate and vigorous activities in Physical Education class, the boys were significantly more active than the girls (<em>p</em>=0.017). In contrast, normal-weight children were slightly more active at this intensity level, but this difference was not statistically significant (<em>p</em>=0.622). The effort in Physical Education classes has been perceived as more demanding by the obese students; for this reason, it is important to understand the physical and motor difficulties that this group presents. Likewise, girls have participated for a shorter time in moderate and vigorous intensities, being pertinent to look for didactic strategies to increase the time of their participation.</p> Luis Mayorga Aguilar, Cristian Martínez-Salazar, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:46:20 -0600 Design And Validation of Instruments for Assessing Sitting Posture and Fine Motor Function in Primary School Students <p>Schoolchildren can spend around 80% of their school day sat. In this sense, different studies establish a direct relationship between posture and health problems. Moreover, writing difficulties can also affect the perception of abilities, hence the importance of instilling proper postural and graphomotor habits from an early age. The main objectives of this study were, on the one hand, to design instruments for observation and data collection of postural and graphomotricity patterns and, on the other hand, to validate these instruments through expert opinion. A secondary objective was to evaluate the internal consistency of the instrument to assess the posture of sedestation. Concerning the first objective, both instruments showed high inter-judge concordance in terms of relevance and precision of the items. In relation to the second objective, the instruments were applied to a sample of 93 children from the 1st and 5th grades of primary school to evaluate their internal consistency of the posture instrument. Dimensional reliability results showed values greater than 0.7. The instruments designed are presented as useful tools to assess the patterns related to posture and graphomotricity and thus contribute to detecting problems associated with school-age children. In conclusion, these instruments can provide appropriate guidelines for the development of work plans to meet the needs of students.</p> Yolanda Sánchez-Matas, David Gutiérrez, José Vicente Salido López, Andrea Hernández Martínez (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:45:46 -0600 Body Composition, Dermatoglyphics and Aerobic Resistance in Sub-20 Category Footballers from Bogota, Colombia <p>Soccer has generated endless research that has enhanced athlete’s qualities to achieve maximum sports performance. According to the above, the use of new tools has been implemented to improve talent selection processes and develop physical abilities, as is the case with dermatoglyphics that provides information on an individual’s genotype. The present study aims to relate body composition, dermatoglyphics, and maximum oxygen consumption in soccer players’ category sub-20. The research had a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The sample comprised 22 players (age 18±1.1) from Bogota Sports Club, Colombia. They were assessed for body composition, the somatotype was calculated, handprints were analyzed, and the maximum oxygen consumption was measured with the Test Course Navette. The results show a predominance of balanced mesomorph somatotype (53%), high presence of “L” ridges (66.36 %), low presence of “A” arches (1.82%), and maximum oxygen consumption of 53.76±3.73 ml/kg/min. Furthermore, significant relationships were found between D10-SCTL dermatoglyphic components and the endomorph somatotype (p &lt;0.05), and between the maximum VO₂ with endomorph and ectomorph somatotype (p &lt;0.05). It is concluded that soccer players are characterized by having a predisposition towards coordination, resistance, and agility.</p> Juan Sebastián Erazo Bello, Angela Yazmín Gálvez Pardo, Laura Elizabeth Castro Jiménez, Yenny Paola Argüello Gutiérrez, Paula Janyn Melo Buitrago (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Dec 2021 11:51:09 -0600