Socio-environmental aspects affecting water contamination in an urban area

Keywords: Socio-environmental perception, land use, productive activities, pollution, water resource

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to identify and analyze the most relevant socio-environmental aspects causing contamination of water resources in an urban area. The study used descriptive research with a mixed approach, in which, through the collection of primary and secondary information, data was obtained related to socio-environmental perception, change patterns in land use, identification of potential sources of water contamination by discharge, and the current condition of wastewater management in the area. The information was obtained through a preliminary perception survey, field verification, satellite images, databases from regulatory authorities, and other sources. The surveyed population’s perception regarding water supply is satisfactory; however, no interest was perceived regarding home wastewater management. The analysis of land use showed a progressive increase in the use of urban land and a decrease in the use of forest areas over the last years. In addition, over 230 potential sources of water contamination were found between direct and indirect discharges. Regarding regulated discharges, the operational reports showed compliance with national regulation, even though the net organic load was high. The commercial activities and urban development negatively affect the area and accelerate water pollution. Therefore, water bodies are under constant pressure, which must be managed using participatory processes with an integrated management approach.

References

Barrenha, P. I. I., Tanaka, M. O., Hanai, F. Y., Pantano, G., Moraes, G. H., Xavier, C., & Mozeto, A. A. (2018). Multivariate analyses of the effect of an urban wastewater treatment plant on spatial and temporal variation of water quality and nutrient distribution of a tropical mid-order river. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6386-4
Blair, R. C., Higgins, J. J., Karniski, W., & Kromrey, J. D. (1994). Multivariate Behavioral A Study of Multivariate Permutation Tests Which May Replace Hotelling ’ s T2 Test in Prescribed Circumstances. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 29(2), 141–163. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr2902_2
Brenes, G. C. (2007). Evaluación y clasificación preliminar de la calidad del agua de la cuenca del río Tárcoles y el Reventazón. Revista Tecnología En Marcha, 20(2). https://revistas.tec.ac.cr/index.php/tec_marcha/article/view/46
Calvo-Brenes, G., & Mora-Molina, J. (2012). Análisis de la calidad de varios cuerpos de agua superficiales en la GAM y la Península de Osa utilizando el índice holandés. Revista Tecnología En Marcha, 25(5). https://doi.org/10.18845/tm.v25i5.471
Carey, R. O., & Migliaccio, K. W. (2009). Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems. Environmental Management, 44(2), 205–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9309-5
Castillo, G. R. & Saénz, E. (2020). Ríos Limpios: Estrategia Nacional para la recuperación de cuencas urbanas 2020-2030. Costa Rica: Un esfuerzo país. http://www.da.go.cr/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Estrategia-Nacional-Rios-Limpios_Recuperacion-de-Cuencas-Urbanas-2020-2030.pdf
Castro, L., Fraile, J., & Reynolds, J. (1996). Conductividad, oxígeno disuelto, pH y temperatura en el rio Bermúdez (Costa Rica) y su relación con el uso del suelo en la cuenca. Uniciencia, 13, 27–34.
Chon, H. S., Ohandja, D. G., & Voulvoulis, N. (2012). Assessing the relative contribution of wastewater treatment plants to levels of metals in receiving waters for catchment management. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 223(7), 3987–4006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1166-9
Cotta, A. J. B., Duboc, L. F., & de Jesus, H. C. (2017). Impacts of urban wastewater and hydrogeochemistry of the São Mateus River, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6658-x
De Mello, K., Taniwaki, R. H., Paula, F. R. de, Valente, R. A., Randhir, T. O., Macedo, D. R. & Hughes, R. M. (2020). Multiscale land use impacts on water quality: Assessment, planning, and future perspectives in Brazil. Journal of Environmental Management, 270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110879
Diphare, M. J., Pilusa, J., Muzenda, E., & Mollagee, M. (2013). A Review of Waste Lubricating Grease Management. International Conference on Environment, Agriculture and Food Sciences, 131–134.
García, M. T., Campos, E., Marsal, A., & Ribosa, I. (2009). Biodegradability and toxicity of sulphonate-based surfactants in aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments. Water Research, 43(2), 295–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.016
Gavrilescu, D.; Teodosiu, C., & David, M. (2020). Environmental assessment of wastewater discharges at river basin level by means of waste absorption footprint. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 21, 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2019.10.006
Good, P. (2000). Permutation Test: A Practical Guide to Resampling Methods for Testing Hypotheses. P. Bickel, P. Diggle, S. Fienberg, K. Krickeberg, I. Olkin, N. Wermuth, & S. Zeger (Eds.). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-3235-1
Gomes, P. I. A., & Wai, O. W. H. (2020). Investigation of Long-Term River Water Quality Trends in Hong Kong to Identify Role of Urbanization, Seasons and Pollution Sources. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 231(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04753-1
Hidalgo García, M. del M. (2017). Las ciudades como objetivo de desarrollo sostenible. IEEE.Es, 3, 10.
Hiremath, R. B., Balachandra, P., Kumar, B., Bansode, S. S., & Murali, J. (2013). Indicator-based urban sustainability-A review. Energy for Sustainable Development, 17(6), 555–563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2013.08.004.
Hernández-Moreno, S., Hernández-Moreno, J. A., & Alcaraz-Vargas, B. (2018). Planeación inteligente de ciudades. Universidad Autónoma. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11799/94609
Hernando Echevarría, L., & Orozco Montoya, R. (2015). Disponibilidad del recurso hídrico en la microcuenca del río Bermúdez. Región central de Costa Rica. Observatorio Medioambiental, 18(0), 165–181. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_obmd.2015.v18.51289
Herrera-Murillo, J., Rodríguez, S., Chaves-Villalobos, M., Herrera, É., & Rojas, J. F. (2013). Variación temporal y espacial de la calidad de las aguas superficiales en la subcuenca del río Virilla (Costa Rica) entre 2006 y 2010. Tropical Journal of Environmental Sciences, 45(1), 51–62. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/rca.45-1.5
ICLEI. (2019). Resilient Cities, Thriving Cities: The Evolution of Urban Resilence. https://iclei.org/en/publication/resilient-cities-thriving-cities-the-evolution-of-urban-resilience
La Gaceta. (2007). Reglamento de Vertido y Reuso de Aguas Residuales N.º 33601-MINAE. Imprenta Nacional
Li, G. Y., Li, L. Z., & Kong, M. (2020). Multiple-Scale Analysis of Water Quality Variations and Their Correlation with Land use in Highly Urbanized Taihu Basin, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 106, 218-224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02959-x
McCormick, K., Anderberg, S., Coenen, L., & Neij, L. (2013). Advancing sustainable urban transformation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.01.003
Meegoda, J. N., Li, B., Patel, K., & Wang, L. B. (2018). A Review of the Processes, Parameters, and Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion. International Journal of environmental research and public health 15(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102224
Mena-Rivera, L., Vásquez-Bolaños, O., Gómez-Castro, C., Fonseca-Sánchez, A., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A., & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, R. (2018). Ecosystemic assessment of surface water quality in the Virilla River: Towards sanitation processes in Costa Rica. Water (Switzerland), 10(7), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070845
Mena-Rivera, L., Salgado-Silva, V., Benavides-Benavides, C., Coto-Campos, J. M., & Swinscoe, T. H. A. (2017). Spatial and seasonal surface water quality assessment in a tropical urban catchment: Burío River, Costa Rica. Water (Switzerland), 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080558
Merbt, S. N., Auguet, J. C., Blesa, A., Martí, E., & Casamayor, E. O. (2015). Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Change Abundance and Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Mediterranean Urban Stream Biofilms. Microbial Ecology, 69(1), 66–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-014-0464-8
Ministerio de Salud, MINAE & AyA. (2016). Política Nacional de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales. Autor.
Mitchell, V. G. (2006). Applying integrated urban water management concepts: A review of Australian experience. Environmental Management, 37(5), 589–605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0252-1
Mohammadkhani, M., Masnavi, M., Rezaei Hariri, M. & Mirmoghtadaee, M. (2020). Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) Framework Codification in Architectural and Urban Design: The Case of Hashtgerd Young City Project. Space Ontology International Journal, 9(4). 29-41. http://soij.qiau.ac.ir/article_680028.html
Municipalidad de Heredia. (2014). Caracterización general del cantón de San Pablo de Heredia. Autor.
Naidoo, S., & Olaniran, A. O. (2013). Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(1), 249–270. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110100249
Okoh, A. I., Sibanda, T., & Gusha, S. S. (2010). Inadequately treated wastewater as a source of human enteric viruses in the environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(6), 2620–2637. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7062620
Organización Mundial de la Salud (2021). Saneamiento. Sitio Web. https://www.who.int/topics/sanitation/es/
Peto, R., & Peto, J. (1972). Asymptotically Efficient Rank Invariant Test Procedures. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 135(2), 185–207. https://doi.org/10.2307/2344317
Prentice, R. L. (1978). Linear rank tests with right censored data. Biometrika, 65(1), 167–169. https://doi.org/10.2307/2335292
Rebello, S., Asok, A. K., Mundayoor, S. & Jisha, M. S. (2014). Surfactants: Toxicity, remediation and green surfactants. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 12(2), 275–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-014-0466-2
Rosales-Escalante, E. (2016). Tanques sépticos. Conceptos teóricos base y aplicaciones. Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica.
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, R., & Villalobos-González, W. (2020). Canon ambiental por vertidos en Costa Rica como instrumento económico en la gestión de aguas residuales: Un enfoque metodológico y de análisis de la situación actual. Repertorio Científico, 22(1), 38–49. https://doi.org/2215 – 565
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, R., & Gómez-Castro, C. (2021). Acercamiento a los procesos de modelación de la calidad del agua en una subcuenca. Caso del río Virilla, Costa Rica. Uniciencia, 35(1), 71–89. https://doi.org/10.15359/ru.35-1.5
Sibanda, T., Selvarajan, R., & Tekere, M. (2015). Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa’s aquatic milieu. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(23), 18301–18317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5416-4
Song, Y., Song, X., Shao, G., & Hu, T. (2020). Effects of Land Use on Stream Water Quality in the Rapidly Urbanized Areas: A Multiscale Analysis. Water (Switzerland), 12(1123). https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/w12041123
Verma, P., & Raghubanshi, A. S. (2018). Urban sustainability indicators: Challenges and opportunities. Ecological Indicators, 93, 282–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.05.007
Wakelin, S. A., Colloff, M. J., & Kookana, R. S. (2008). Effect of wastewater treatment plant effluent on microbial function and community structure in the sediment of a freshwater stream with variable seasonal flow. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(9), 2659–2668. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02348-07
Willey, R. (2001). Fats, oils, and greases: The minimization and treatment of wastewaters generated from oil refining and margarine production. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 50(2), 127–133. https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2001.2081
Williams, M., Kookana, R. S., Mehta, A., Yadav, S. K., Tailor, B. L., & Maheshwari, B. (2019). Emerging contaminants in a river receiving untreated wastewater from an Indian urban centre. Science of the Total Environment, 647, 1256–1265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.084
Published
2021-07-31
How to Cite
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, R., Alfaro-Chinchilla, C., Ledezma-Zamora, K., Hernando-Echeverría, L., Mora-Aparicio, C., & Pérez-Salazar, R. (2021). Socio-environmental aspects affecting water contamination in an urban area. Uniciencia, 35(2), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.15359/ru.35-2.20
Section
Original scientific papers (evaluated by academic peers)

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)