An overview of the synthesis of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation: mechanisms, factors, and techniques

  • Carlos Daniel Galindo-Uribe CinvestavDepartamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, México, Mexico
  • Patrizia Calaminici Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, México, Mexico
  • Omar Solorza-Feria Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, México, Mexico
Keywords: graphene, exfoliation, materials, synthesis


The objective of this article is to create a consensus about the graphene production by the liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) method, as well as to understand the key causes and factors affecting the yield and quality of the graphene obtained. An exhaustive bibliographic search was conducted in Google Scholar given the extent of its collection. The results of the search are ordered by relevance, giving priority to key causes and physical phenomena related to LPE. The articles focused on understanding physical and chemical phenomena were classified in the mechanism section, in order to have a better understanding of the method at the molecular level. With this information, a classification of the most common LPE techniques (sonication, microfluidics, etc.) is proposed in order to reach a consensus on which techniques belong to the LPE method in function of their mechanism. The proposed classification aims at developing new techniques to significantly improve the performance of this method. From this systematic review, it is concluded that the liquid-phase exfoliation method is robust and very attractive to the industry and has easy scalability with high performance in relation to the techniques analyzed.


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How to Cite
Galindo-Uribe, C. D., Calaminici, P., & Solorza-Feria, O. (2022). An overview of the synthesis of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation: mechanisms, factors, and techniques. Uniciencia, 36(1), 1-14.
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