Alarcón-Elbal, P.M. & Lucientes, J. 2012. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) de España. Graellsia 68:353–362. doi:10.3989/graellsia.2012.v68.064. Bilk, S. Schulze, C. Fischer, M. Beer, M. Hlinak, A. & Hoffmann, B. 2012. Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA in malformed newborns. Vet. Microbiol. 159:236–238. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.035. De Blas, I., Ruiz-Zarzuela, I. & Vallejo, A. 2006. WinEpi: Working In Epidemiology. An Online Epidemiological Tool. Page in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, Australia. Cameron, A.R. & Baldock, F.C. 1998. A new probability formula for surveys to substantiate freedom from disease.. Prev. Vet. Med. 34:1–17. Doceul, V., Lara, E., Sailleau, C., Belbis, G. Richardson, J., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Dominguez, M., Hendrikx, P., Calavas, D., Desprat, A., Languille, J., Comtet, L., Pourquier, P., Eléouët, J.-F., Delmas, B., Marianneau, P., Vitour, D. & Zientara, S. 2013. Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe.. Vet. Res. 44:1–13. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-31. Elbers, A.R.W., Meiswinkel, R., van Weezep, E., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. & Engbert, A.K. 2013. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides spp. Biting Midges, the Netherlands, 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19:106–109. doi:10.3201/eid1901.121054. Gariglinany, M.-M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D., Beer, M. & Desmecht, D. 2012. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120104. Greiner, E.C., Mo, C.L., Homan, E.J., Gonzalez, J., Oviedo, M.T., Thompson, L.H. & Gibbs, E.P. 1993. Epidemiology of bluetongue in Central America and the Caribbean: initial entomological findings. Regional Bluetongue Team. Med Vet Entomol 7:309–315. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.1993.tb00697.x. Hernández-Mora, G., Ruiz-Villalobos, N., Bonilla-Montoya, R., Romero-Zúniga, J.J., Jiménez-Arias, J., González-Barrientos, R., Barquero-Calvo, E., Chacón-Díaz, C., Rojas, N., Chaves-Olarte, E., Guzmán-Verri, C. & Moreno, E. 2017. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Costa Rica: Lessons learned from failures in the control of the disease. PLoS One 12:e0182380. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182380. Hoffmann, B., Schulz, C. & Beer, M. 2013. First detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA in bovine semen, Germany, 2012. Vet. Microbiol. 167:289–295. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.002. Homan, E.J., Lorbacher, H., Donato, A., Taylor, W. & Yuill, T.M. 1985. Bluetongue virus infection in Costa Rican and Colombian cattle.. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 178:559–61. InBIO. Biting Midges as Pests. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/papers/Ceratopogonidae/biting.htm. Kim, J. & Seo, B.S. 2013. How to calculate sample size and why. Clin. Orthop. Surg. 5:235–242. doi:10.4055/cios.2013.5.3.235. Koenraadt, C.J.M., Balenghien, T., Carpenter, S., Ducheyne, E., Elbers, A.R.W., Fife, M., Garros, C., Ibáñez-justicia, A., Kampen, H., Kormelink, R.J.M. & Losson, B. 2014. Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century. Ministère de L’Agriculture de L’Alimentation de la Pêche de la Ruralité et de L’Aménagement du Territoire. 2012. Note d’information N°11. http://www.gdma36.fr/WebGDMA.nsf/0/9a88c7c6d32c019ac12579cd00303b80/$FILE/Note%20d’information%20SBV%20n%C2%B011.pdf Montgomery, J.M., Tack, D.M. & Obonyo, M. 2012. Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus 18:1204–1206. Pepin, M., Bouloy, M., Bird, B.H., Kemp, A. & Paweska, J. 2010. Rift Valley fever virus ( Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus ): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention. Vet. Res. 41:1–40. doi:10.1051/vetres/2010033. Ponsart, C., Pozzi, N., Bréard, E., Catinot, V., Viard, G., Sailleau, C., Viarouge, C., Gouzil, J., Beer, M., Zientara, S. & Vitour, D. 2014. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen.. Vet. Res. 45:1–6. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-37. Poskin, A., Verite, S., Comtet, L., Stede, Y., Van Der Cay, B. & Regge, N. De. 2015. Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep. Vet. Res. 1–9. doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0260-6. ProMed-mail. 2012. SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - EUROPE (34): DECLINE, UPDATE. http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20120426.1115024.%0A11. De Regge, N., Deblauwe, I., De Deken, R., Vantieghem, P., Madder, M., Geysen, D., Smeets, F., Losson, B., van den Berg, T. & Cay, A.B. 2012. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 59:471–475. doi:10.1111/tbed.12000. Ruiz-Fons, F. 2012. Enfermedades Transmitidas por Garrapatas. Argos 42–44. Schulz, C., van der Poel, W.H.M., Ponsart, C., Cay, A.B., Steinbach, F., Zientara, S., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2015. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples. J. Vet. Diagnostic Investig. 27:422–430. doi:10.1177/1040638715593798. Schulz, C., Wernike, K., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2014. Infectious Schmallenberg virus from bovine semen, Germany.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:338–340. doi:10.3201/eid2002.131436. Tarlinton, R., Daly, J., Dunham, S. & Kydd, J. 2012. The challenge of Schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Vet. J. 194:10–18. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.08.017. Thrusfield, M., Ortega, C., de Blas, I., Noordhuizen, J.P. & Frankena, K. 2001. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine. Vet. Rec. 148:567–572. doi:10.1136/vr.148.18.567. Villagra-blanco, R., Dolz, G. & Montero-Caballero, D. 2008. Short Communication Seroprevalence of Bluetongue and Associated Risk Factors in Costa Rican Sheep Flocks 1–6. Wensman, J.J., Blomqvist, G., Hjort, M. & Holst, B.S. 2013. Presence of antibodies to schmallenberg virus in a dog in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51:2802–2803. doi:10.1128/JCM.00877-13.

  • Marlene Villegas-Salas Laboratorio Nacional de Servicios Veterinario, Laboratorio Regional Huetar Norte, Costa Rica
  • Tara Alvarado Dr. Bitter Veterinaria. Estudiante de Medicina Veterinaria, Costa Rica
  • Carla Trejos-Araya Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Costa Rica
  • Alexis Sandí Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal, Depto de Epidemiología, Costa Rica
  • Bernal León Laboratorio Bioseguridad, Departamento Diagnóstico Veterinario, Laboratorio Nacional de Servicios Veterinarios. SENASA, Costa Rica, Costa Rica
  • Carlos Jiménez Universidad Nacional, Laboratorio de Virología, Programa de Investigación de Enfermedades Tropicales, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Costa Rica
Keywords: Ruminants, SENASA, Schmallenberg virus, Costa Rica, serology

Abstract

Schmallenberg virus affects ruminants, which causes significant economic losses.  The virus is transmitted through vectors of the genus Culicoides; however, other studies do not rule out the possibility of sexual transmission due to its presence in semen. For this reason, the National Service of Animal Health of Costa Rica (SENASA) imposed restrictions on the import of semen from animals from the European Union in 2013. Consequently, SENASA conducted a study to determine the presence or absence of antibodies against this virus in bovine, ovine and caprine samples. As a result, no antibodies against this virus were detected in the 748 samples tested. It was concluded that Schmallenberg virus was not circulating in Costa Rican ruminants during the tested period.

References

Alarcón-Elbal, P.M. & Lucientes, J. 2012. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) de España. Graellsia 68:353–362. doi:10.3989/graellsia.2012.v68.064.

Bilk, S. Schulze, C. Fischer, M. Beer, M. Hlinak, A. & Hoffmann, B. 2012. Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA in malformed newborns. Vet. Microbiol. 159:236–238. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.035.

De Blas, I., Ruiz-Zarzuela, I. & Vallejo, A. 2006. WinEpi: Working In Epidemiology. An Online Epidemiological Tool. Page in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, Australia.

Cameron, A.R. & Baldock, F.C. 1998. A new probability formula for surveys to substantiate freedom from disease.. Prev. Vet. Med. 34:1–17.

Doceul, V., Lara, E., Sailleau, C., Belbis, G. Richardson, J., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Dominguez, M., Hendrikx, P., Calavas, D., Desprat, A., Languille, J., Comtet, L., Pourquier, P., Eléouët, J.-F., Delmas, B., Marianneau, P., Vitour, D. & Zientara, S. 2013. Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe.. Vet. Res. 44:1–13. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-31.

Elbers, A.R.W., Meiswinkel, R., van Weezep, E., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. & Engbert, A.K. 2013. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides spp. Biting Midges, the Netherlands, 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19:106–109. doi:10.3201/eid1901.121054.

Gariglinany, M.-M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D., Beer, M. & Desmecht, D. 2012. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120104.

Greiner, E.C., Mo, C.L., Homan, E.J., Gonzalez, J., Oviedo, M.T., Thompson, L.H. & Gibbs, E.P. 1993. Epidemiology of bluetongue in Central America and the Caribbean: initial entomological findings. Regional Bluetongue Team. Med Vet Entomol 7:309–315. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.1993.tb00697.x.

Hernández-Mora, G., Ruiz-Villalobos, N., Bonilla-Montoya, R., Romero-Zúniga, J.J., Jiménez-Arias, J., González-Barrientos, R., Barquero-Calvo, E., Chacón-Díaz, C., Rojas, N., Chaves-Olarte, E., Guzmán-Verri, C. & Moreno, E. 2017. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Costa Rica: Lessons learned from failures in the control of the disease. PLoS One 12:e0182380. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182380.

Hoffmann, B., Schulz, C. & Beer, M. 2013. First detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA in bovine semen, Germany, 2012. Vet. Microbiol. 167:289–295. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.002.

Homan, E.J., Lorbacher, H., Donato, A., Taylor, W. & Yuill, T.M. 1985. Bluetongue virus infection in Costa Rican and Colombian cattle.. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 178:559–61.

InBIO. Biting Midges as Pests. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/papers/Ceratopogonidae/biting.htm.

Kim, J. & Seo, B.S. 2013. How to calculate sample size and why. Clin. Orthop. Surg. 5:235–242. doi:10.4055/cios.2013.5.3.235.

Koenraadt, C.J.M., Balenghien, T., Carpenter, S., Ducheyne, E., Elbers, A.R.W., Fife, M., Garros, C., Ibáñez-justicia, A., Kampen, H., Kormelink, R.J.M. & Losson, B. 2014. Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century.

Ministère de L’Agriculture de L’Alimentation de la Pêche de la Ruralité et de L’Aménagement du Territoire. 2012. Note d’information N°11. http://www.gdma36.fr/WebGDMA.nsf/0/9a88c7c6d32c019ac12579cd00303b80/$FILE/Note%20d’information%20SBV%20n%C2%B011.pdf

Montgomery, J.M., Tack, D.M. & Obonyo, M. 2012. Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus 18:1204–1206.

Pepin, M., Bouloy, M., Bird, B.H., Kemp, A. & Paweska, J. 2010. Rift Valley fever virus ( Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus ): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention. Vet. Res. 41:1–40. doi:10.1051/vetres/2010033.

Ponsart, C., Pozzi, N., Bréard, E., Catinot, V., Viard, G., Sailleau, C., Viarouge, C., Gouzil, J., Beer, M., Zientara, S. & Vitour, D. 2014. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen.. Vet. Res. 45:1–6. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-37.

Poskin, A., Verite, S., Comtet, L., Stede, Y., Van Der Cay, B. & Regge, N. De. 2015. Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep. Vet. Res. 1–9. doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0260-6.

ProMed-mail. 2012. SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - EUROPE (34): DECLINE, UPDATE. http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20120426.1115024.%0A11.

De Regge, N., Deblauwe, I., De Deken, R., Vantieghem, P., Madder, M., Geysen, D., Smeets, F., Losson, B., van den Berg, T. & Cay, A.B. 2012. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 59:471–475. doi:10.1111/tbed.12000.

Ruiz-Fons, F. 2012. Enfermedades Transmitidas por Garrapatas. Argos 42–44.

Schulz, C., van der Poel, W.H.M., Ponsart, C., Cay, A.B., Steinbach, F., Zientara, S., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2015. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples. J. Vet. Diagnostic Investig. 27:422–430. doi:10.1177/1040638715593798.

Schulz, C., Wernike, K., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2014. Infectious Schmallenberg virus from bovine semen, Germany.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:338–340. doi:10.3201/eid2002.131436.

Tarlinton, R., Daly, J., Dunham, S. & Kydd, J. 2012. The challenge of Schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Vet. J. 194:10–18. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.08.017.

Thrusfield, M., Ortega, C., de Blas, I., Noordhuizen, J.P. & Frankena, K. 2001. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine. Vet. Rec. 148:567–572. doi:10.1136/vr.148.18.567.

Villagra-blanco, R., Dolz, G. & Montero-Caballero, D. 2008. Short Communication Seroprevalence of Bluetongue and Associated Risk Factors in Costa Rican Sheep Flocks 1–6.

Wensman, J.J., Blomqvist, G., Hjort, M. & Holst, B.S. 2013. Presence of antibodies to schmallenberg virus in a dog in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51:2802–2803. doi:10.1128/JCM.00877-13.

Published
2017-12-10
How to Cite
Villegas-Salas, M., Alvarado, T., Trejos-Araya, C., Sandí, A., León, B., & Jiménez, C. (2017). Alarcón-Elbal, P.M. & Lucientes, J. 2012. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) de España. Graellsia 68:353–362. doi:10.3989/graellsia.2012.v68.064. Bilk, S. Schulze, C. Fischer, M. Beer, M. Hlinak, A. & Hoffmann, B. 2012. Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA in malformed newborns. Vet. Microbiol. 159:236–238. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.035. De Blas, I., Ruiz-Zarzuela, I. & Vallejo, A. 2006. WinEpi: Working In Epidemiology. An Online Epidemiological Tool. Page in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, Australia. Cameron, A.R. & Baldock, F.C. 1998. A new probability formula for surveys to substantiate freedom from disease. Prev. Vet. Med. 34:1–17. Doceul, V., Lara, E., Sailleau, C., Belbis, G. Richardson, J., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Dominguez, M., Hendrikx, P., Calavas, D., Desprat, A., Languille, J., Comtet, L., Pourquier, P., Eléouët, J.-F., Delmas, B., Marianneau, P., Vitour, D. & Zientara, S. 2013. Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe. Vet. Res. 44:1–13. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-31. Elbers, A.R.W., Meiswinkel, R., van Weezep, E., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. & Engbert, A.K. 2013. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides spp. Biting Midges, the Netherlands, 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19:106–109. doi:10.3201/eid1901.121054. Gariglinany, M.-M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D., Beer, M. & Desmecht, D. 2012. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120104. Greiner, E.C., Mo, C.L., Homan, E.J., Gonzalez, J., Oviedo, M.T., Thompson, L.H. & Gibbs, E.P. 1993. Epidemiology of bluetongue in Central America and the Caribbean: initial entomological findings. Regional Bluetongue Team. Med Vet Entomol 7:309–315. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.1993.tb00697.x. Hernández-Mora, G., Ruiz-Villalobos, N., Bonilla-Montoya, R., Romero-Zúniga, J.J., Jiménez-Arias, J., González-Barrientos, R., Barquero-Calvo, E., Chacón-Díaz, C., Rojas, N., Chaves-Olarte, E., Guzmán-Verri, C. & Moreno, E. 2017. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Costa Rica: Lessons learned from failures in the control of the disease. PLoS One 12:e0182380. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182380. Hoffmann, B., Schulz, C. & Beer, M. 2013. First detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA in bovine semen, Germany, 2012. Vet. Microbiol. 167:289–295. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.002. Homan, E.J., Lorbacher, H., Donato, A., Taylor, W. & Yuill, T.M. 1985. Bluetongue virus infection in Costa Rican and Colombian cattle. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 178:559–61. InBIO. Biting Midges as Pests. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/papers/Ceratopogonidae/biting.htm. Kim, J. & Seo, B.S. 2013. How to calculate sample size and why. Clin. Orthop. Surg. 5:235–242. doi:10.4055/cios.2013.5.3.235. Koenraadt, C.J.M., Balenghien, T., Carpenter, S., Ducheyne, E., Elbers, A.R.W., Fife, M., Garros, C., Ibáñez-justicia, A., Kampen, H., Kormelink, R.J.M. & Losson, B. 2014. Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century Bluetongue , Schmallenberg - what is next ? Culicoides -borne viral diseases in the 21 st Century. Ministère de L’Agriculture de L’Alimentation de la Pêche de la Ruralité et de L’Aménagement du Territoire. 2012. Note d’information N°11. http://www.gdma36.fr/WebGDMA.nsf/0/9a88c7c6d32c019ac12579cd00303b80/$FILE/Note%20d’information%20SBV%20n%C2%B011.pdf Montgomery, J.M., Tack, D.M. & Obonyo, M. 2012. Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus 18:1204–1206. Pepin, M., Bouloy, M., Bird, B.H., Kemp, A. & Paweska, J. 2010. Rift Valley fever virus ( Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus ): an update on pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, vectors, diagnostics and prevention. Vet. Res. 41:1–40. doi:10.1051/vetres/2010033. Ponsart, C., Pozzi, N., Bréard, E., Catinot, V., Viard, G., Sailleau, C., Viarouge, C., Gouzil, J., Beer, M., Zientara, S. & Vitour, D. 2014. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen. Vet. Res. 45:1–6. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-37. Poskin, A., Verite, S., Comtet, L., Stede, Y., Van Der Cay, B. & Regge, N. De. 2015. Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep. Vet. Res. 1–9. doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0260-6. ProMed-mail. 2012. SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - EUROPE (34): DECLINE, UPDATE. http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20120426.1115024.%0A11. De Regge, N., Deblauwe, I., De Deken, R., Vantieghem, P., Madder, M., Geysen, D., Smeets, F., Losson, B., van den Berg, T. & Cay, A.B. 2012. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 59:471–475. doi:10.1111/tbed.12000. Ruiz-Fons, F. 2012. Enfermedades Transmitidas por Garrapatas. Argos 42–44. Schulz, C., van der Poel, W.H.M., Ponsart, C., Cay, A.B., Steinbach, F., Zientara, S., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2015. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples. J. Vet. Diagnostic Investig. 27:422–430. doi:10.1177/1040638715593798. Schulz, C., Wernike, K., Beer, M. & Hoffmann, B. 2014. Infectious Schmallenberg virus from bovine semen, Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:338–340. doi:10.3201/eid2002.131436. Tarlinton, R., Daly, J., Dunham, S. & Kydd, J. 2012. The challenge of Schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Vet. J. 194:10–18. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.08.017. Thrusfield, M., Ortega, C., de Blas, I., Noordhuizen, J.P. & Frankena, K. 2001. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine. Vet. Rec. 148:567–572. doi:10.1136/vr.148.18.567. Villagra-blanco, R., Dolz, G. & Montero-Caballero, D. 2008. Short Communication Seroprevalence of Bluetongue and Associated Risk Factors in Costa Rican Sheep Flocks 1–6. Wensman, J.J., Blomqvist, G., Hjort, M. & Holst, B.S. 2013. Presence of antibodies to schmallenberg virus in a dog in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51:2802–2803. doi:10.1128/JCM.00877-13. Ciencias Veterinarias, 35(2), 103-112. https://doi.org/10.15359/rcv.35-2.4

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