Ciencias Veterinarias <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ISSN:</strong> 0250-5649 / <strong>EISSN:</strong> 2215-4507 <br><strong>Ciencias Veterinarias</strong> is a periodical scientific publication in electronic format, aimed at professionals and students of Veterinary Medicine and other Health Sciences whose main purpose is the dissemination of scientific knowledge in the areas of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Public Health, generated in Costa Rica and other countries of the Ibero-American region. Currently the journal is indexed in: INDEX VETERINARIUS AND VETERINARY BULLETIN of CAB (England), <a title="redib" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a title="LATINDEX" href="">Latindex</a> and <a title="doaj" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>. Registered in: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/ROMEO</a>, <a title="miar2020" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MIAR</a><br><strong>Publishing entity of the journal:</strong> Universidad Nacional, School of Veterinary Medicine.<br><strong>Frequency:</strong>&nbsp;Biannual (January-June and July-December).<br><strong>Descriptors:</strong> Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Public Health.<br><strong>Contact e-mail:</strong></p> <p>You can find our articles in the&nbsp;<a title="portal" href="/index.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universidad Nacional Journal Portal</a>.<br>We remind you to visit our link on the&nbsp;<a title="normas para autores" href="/index.php/veterinaria/about/submissions#authorGuidelines">Publication Guidelines</a> before sending us your article.</p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US Ciencias Veterinarias 0250-5649 <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Licensing of articles</strong></h3> <p>All articles will be published under a license:</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a><br> <a href="" rel="license">Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDeri<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>vadas 3.0 Costa Rica</a>.</p> <p>Access to this journal is free of charge, only the article and the journal must be cited in full.</p> <p>Intellectual property rights belong to the author. Once the article has been accepted for publication, the author assigns the reproduction rights to the Journal.</p> <p>Ciencias Veterinarias Journal authorizes the printing of articles and photocopies for personal use. Also, the use for educational purposes is encouraged. Especially: institutions may create links to specific articles found in the journal's server in order to make up course packages, seminars or as instructional material.</p> <p>The author may place a copy of the final version on his or her server, although it is recommended that a link be maintained to the journal's server where the original article is located.</p> <p>Intellectual property violations are the responsibility of the author. The company or institution that provides access to the contents, either because it acts only as a transmitter of information (for example, Internet access providers) or because it offers public server services, is not responsible.</p> Molecular characterization of the Newcastle disease virus that caused an outbreak in backyard birds in Costa Rica in 2015 <p>Costa Rica gained its Newcastle Disease Virus NDV-free status with vaccination according to OIE proceedings in 1996, and its declaration as a country free of the velogenic, viscerotropic form of this disease (G/SPS/GEN/119) presented to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1999. On April 24th, 2015, SENASA (National Animal Health Service) attended a velogenic Newcastle disease outbreak that affected backyard chickens in a small town (Bellavista, Guanacaste) in the northern part of the country, near the Nicaraguan border. Sixty-five backyard birds died from a total of 84 exposed animals. Blood samples, cloacal swabs, tracheal swabs, cecal tonsils, lung and trachea tissues were collected for diagnosis at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (LANASEVE). These samples were screened for Avian Influenza (AIV) and NDV. All samples were negative for Avian Influenza in ELISA test and RT-PCR. Serum samples were positive for NDV antibody by hemagglutination inhibition test, and tissue and swab samples were positive for NDV by conventional RT-qPCR targeting a 310 bp fragment of the virus fusion protein gene. The amino acid sequence of the protease cleavage site within the amplicon matched the sequence of a virulent strain (112RRQKRF117). The nucleotide sequence had a 98.7% identity and an e value of 4e-153 with a genotype V velogenic sequence from Belize (KF767467) and Honduras (JN872194) collected in 2008 and 2007, respectively, according to BLASTN. A total of 3604 backyard birds were euthanized in town and its surroundings (1 km), including 3495 chickens, 66 turkeys, 6 geese, and 37 ducks. The case was considered resolved, and OIE was notified in November 2015 following OIE guidelines. In April 2017, Costa Rica recovered its disease-free status through executive decree No. 40301-MAG.<br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Bernal León Juan M. Cordero-Solórzano Idania Chacón Olga Aguilar Guisella Chaves Mónica Guzmán Fabián Carvajal Ronaldo Chaves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 41 1 1 14 10.15359/rcv.41-1.1 Hemoparasites in horses from the Mounted Police Unit of the Costa Rican Ministry of Public Security <p>There are intracellular hemoparasites (protozoan and bacterial) that parasitize various blood cells and extracellular hemoparasites, such as protozoan Trypanosoma evansi, that cause diseases in both animals and humans. In tropical areas such as Costa Rica, the transmission of hemoparasites is favored by the abundance of hematophagous arthropods acting as biological vectors (for example, ticks are biological vectors of the protozoa Babesia sp. and Theileria sp. and bacteria such as Ehrlichia sp. and Anaplasma sp.) and mechanical vectors (flies and horseflies are mechanical vectors of Anaplasma marginale and Trypanosoma evansi). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of blood parasites (Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, and Trypanosoma evansi) in equines of the Costa Rican Mounted Police Unit and the relationship with their general health condition. A total of 41 equines underwent a clinical examination. Blood and ectoparasite samples were later taken from the equines as well as from their environment. The subjects’ clinical history (previous conditions and results of recent blood counts) was also reviewed. DNA was extracted and analyzed from the samples (blood and arthropods) using different protocols of the conventional or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Eight (19.5%) horses were positive for hemoparasites, a new Anaplasma species (n=2), co-infection of this new Anaplasma species with B. caballi (n=2), B. caballi (n=1), T. equi (n=1), new species of Ehrlichia (n=1), and in one horse only the presence of Anaplasmataceae could be detected. Stomoxys calcitrans collected near the horses were positive for B. caballi. Both PCR positive and PCR negative horses presented anemia in the absence of clinical signs. The complete genome of the two new pathogens detected in horses (Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp.) should be sequenced, and the vectorial competence of Stomoxys calcitrans flies should be investigated for hemoparasites in horses.<br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Jéssica Arguedas Herrera Antony Solórzano Morales Gaby Dolz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 41 1 1 13 10.15359/rcv.41-1.2 Review of the presence of small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) infesting colonies of native stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) <p>The breeding and care of native stingless bees is known as “meliponiculture”, an ancient activity of environmental and socioeconomic importance. In Costa Rica, there are more than 50 species of stingless bees, Melipona (Jicotes) and Tetragonisca (mariolas) being the most used genus by meliponiculturists. The small hive beetle, <em>Aethina tumida</em> (Murray 1867), is native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered a minor pest among African honey bees. However, since its detection in honey bee hives of European origin in the United States (1998), it is considered an invasive pest causing serious problems for beekeeping. Both larvae and adult beetles feed on honey, pollen, and bee brood in Apis mellifera nests. In addition, it has great adaptability to different environments, from tropical conditions to temperate climates. It has been reported in different countries, such as Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil. The first report on Africanized bees in Central America was in El Salvador, then in Nicaragua, and was later confirmed in Costa Rica and Guatemala. It is reported that A. tumida can infest colonies of native stingless bees (meliponinos) and bumble bee (<em>Bombus sp</em>.). Its presence has been reported in colonies of <em>Melipona beecheii, Dactylurina staudingerii, Trigona carbonaria, Austroplebeia australis, Melipona rufiventris, Plebeia frontalis</em>, and <em>Bombus impatiens</em><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>. In Costa Rica, even though systematic research of the beetle in colonies of native stingless bees has not been conducted, to date its presence has not been reported. In a preliminary monitoring, colonies of M. beecheii, located near the initial focus of detection of the beetle in La Cruz, Guanacaste, were examined, resulting negative. Since meliponiculture is conducted in different regions of Costa Rica, native stingless bee colonies should be monitored for small hive beetles.</p> Rafael A. Calderón-Fallas Luis A. Sánchez-Chaves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 41 1 1 10 10.15359/rcv.41-1.3 Senna cobanensis poisoning in zebu calves: First case report <p>Plants of the genus <em>Senna</em> belong to the <em>Fabaceae</em><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span> family and globally they are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Some species of this genus contain products of secondary metabolism, which have been associated with toxic myopathy and hepatic necrosis in different animal species. The goal of this case report was to document for the first time in Costa Rica myotoxicity in calves associated to the consumption of Senna cobanensis, a Senna species that had not been previously reported as myotoxic in the literature, which resulted in 4 affected animals out of 18 and 2 deaths out of the 4 affected. The case took place in a zebu cattle farm in the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica in December 2019. A clinical examination was conducted of the calves, and their diet was analyzed. Locomotor problems were found such as paraparesis and increased AST and CK-NAC activity consistent with muscle tissue damage. The histopathologic analysis revealed degeneration and necrosis of muscle fibers. Other myopathic agents such as selenium deficiency and ionophore intoxication were ruled out. According to the results obtained in the study, it is concluded that Senna cobanensis is another species of the genus that causes myotoxicity in cattle.</p> Carolina Vargas-Muñoz Mariana Vargas-Muñoz Luis Sánchez-Chaves Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón Carlos Alpízar-Solís Carlos Luna-Tortós ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 41 1 1 14 10.15359/rcv.41-1.4