Ciencias Veterinarias <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ISSN:</strong> 0250-5649 / <strong>EISSN:</strong> 2215-4507 <br><strong>Ciencias Veterinarias</strong> is a periodical scientific publication in electronic format, aimed at professionals and students of Veterinary Medicine and other Health Sciences whose main purpose is the dissemination of scientific knowledge in the areas of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Public Health, generated in Costa Rica and other countries of the Ibero-American region. Currently the journal is indexed in: INDEX VETERINARIUS AND VETERINARY BULLETIN of CAB (England), <a title="redib" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a title="LATINDEX" href="">Latindex</a> and <a title="doaj" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>. Registered in: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/ROMEO</a>, <a title="miar2020" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MIAR</a><br><strong>Publishing entity of the journal:</strong> Universidad Nacional, School of Veterinary Medicine.<br><strong>Frequency:</strong>&nbsp;Biannual (January-June and July-December).<br><strong>Descriptors:</strong> Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Public Health.<br><strong>Contact e-mail:</strong></p> <p>You can find our articles in the&nbsp;<a title="portal" href="/index.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universidad Nacional Journal Portal</a>.<br>We remind you to visit our link on the&nbsp;<a title="normas para autores" href="/index.php/veterinaria/about/submissions#authorGuidelines">Publication Guidelines</a> before sending us your article.</p> Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica en-US Ciencias Veterinarias 0250-5649 <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Licensing of articles</strong></h3> <p>All articles will be published under a license:</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a><br> <a href="" rel="license">Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDeri<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span>vadas 3.0 Costa Rica</a>.</p> <p>Access to this journal is free of charge, only the article and the journal must be cited in full.</p> <p>Intellectual property rights belong to the author. Once the article has been accepted for publication, the author assigns the reproduction rights to the Journal.</p> <p>Ciencias Veterinarias Journal authorizes the printing of articles and photocopies for personal use. Also, the use for educational purposes is encouraged. Especially: institutions may create links to specific articles found in the journal's server in order to make up course packages, seminars or as instructional material.</p> <p>The author may place a copy of the final version on his or her server, although it is recommended that a link be maintained to the journal's server where the original article is located.</p> <p>Intellectual property violations are the responsibility of the author. The company or institution that provides access to the contents, either because it acts only as a transmitter of information (for example, Internet access providers) or because it offers public server services, is not responsible.</p> Anatomical and radiographic study on the appendicular skeleton of the Tamandua mexicana <p><em>Tamandua mexicana</em> species has an important role in the natural ecosystem as a pest controller, feeding on insects such as termites. One of the main anatomical adaptations that this species has undergone has been to its thoracic extremities. Having detailed knowledge regarding the osteology of the thoracic limbs of <em>T. mexicana</em> provides a strong base for its application in clinical-surgical practice. In addition to collaborating with the greater understanding of animal physiology and behavior. Because there was a lack of description about the appendicular skeleton anatomy of this species, the objective of this investigation was to describe the osteology and the radiographic anatomy of the appendicular skeleton of the <em>T. mexicana</em>. The bones used belonging to the appendicular skeleton of two specimens of <em>T. mexicana</em> were properly cleaned using standard boiling and maceration techniques. The morphometry of the bones was performed using a measuring tape, pachymeter, and radiographies. With this study, it was possible to identify and describe the anatomical peculiarities such as the presence of the double scapular spine that shapes the caudolateral fossa, and at the end of the humerus, the supratrochlear foramen, in addition to a markedly prominent medial epicondyle. In addition, a difference was observed between metacarpal bones and the phalanges of the third digit compared to the other ones, as it is significantly thicker. These findings reinforced the evidence that a certain degree of anatomical specialization is a result of an adaptation of this species to its environment and diet. The knowledge provided by research like this contributes to the improvement of surgical techniques and diagnostic approach in the species.<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Ariana Calvo Varela Mauren Hernández Valerio Dominique Villalobos Morales Alison Fernández Mesén Katherina Alpizar Moreno Dennis Salas Zamora Daniel Miranda Fernández Laura Chaverri Esquivel Andréia Passos Pequeno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 40 1 1 26 10.15359/rcv.40-1.1 Canine Protothecosis in Costa Rica: What to Look For and When to Suspect? <p>Protothecosis is a disease caused by unicellular, achlorophilic, saprophyte, and opportunistic algae of the genus <em>Prototheca</em>, affecting mainly animals with immunodeficiencies. In canines with the intestinal form, it causes bloody diarrhea, which can progress to a systemic disease. At the same time, skin lesions are common in felines. In Costa Rica, <em>P. zopfii</em> is the species identified with the highest frequency, and <em>P. wickerhamii</em> was identified once. Prototheca spp. can be diagnosed using different techniques, such as cytology, histopathology, endoscopy, culture, polymerase chain reaction, biochemical method, and others. Currently, the recommended treatment is the use of amphotericin B and itraconazole, which have been reported to be effective in felines; however, there is no effective treatment in canines with systemic disease. Surgery is recommended in cases of cutaneous lesions.<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Natalia B. Campos-González Alejandra Calderón-Hernández Érika Valverde-Altamirano Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 40 1 1 17 10.15359/rcv.40-1.2 Conservative Management of Equine Paraphimosis: Review and Clinical Case Report <p>A 5-year-old Costa Rican Paso stallion had a penis trauma during coitus and developed paraphimosis complicated with edema, hematoma, local infection, and cutaneous ulcerations. A literature review about relevant aspects of this topic is performed, including animal welfare in horse breeding. Considering that penis trauma is a relatively frequent problem in equines, it is important to publish this information to benefit the general veterinary practitioner working under field conditions without suitable equine hospital support, as it happens in some countries. This paper describes how to manufacture and use a homemade genital suspender (jockstrap) properly for the successful conservative management of the problem. General instructions to prevent accidents related to the equine coitus are mentioned; this is also an important topic to avoid animal abuse.<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Juan Estrada-McDermott Miguel Somarriba-Soley Valeria Zamora Javier Montero-Umaña Edgar Alfaro-Umaña José Vargas-Arrieta Manuel Estrada-Umaña ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 40 1 1 13 10.15359/rcv.40-1.3 Analysis of the Mechanical Resistance of the Lidia Bull Horns. Influence of the Sheathing <p>The bull horns are the most delicate anatomical part of this animal since its offensive and easily stressful character causes them to suffer traumatic injuries during the year prior to the show. Currently, the horn is protected with a fiberglass sleeve to protect its integrity. The present work studies the mechanical resistance of bull horns, analyzing the possible influence of the sheath on them. For this, horns have been collected from 50 fighting bulls, 4 to 5 years old, 25 of which had been sheathed 6 months before their show. The mechanical resistance of horns has been analyzed in the distal, middle, and proximal parts, using the Instron Electropulse E10000 equipment, following a methodology like that used by Horcajada et al. (2009). Three mechanical resistance tests were performed: direct compression, indirect traction, and flexo-traction; they showed high resistance of the horn, without differences between its different parts. A beneficial effect of the sheath is observed, favoring a greater thickness of the keratin envelope at the proximal part of the horn; the thickness was greater in the sheathed horns. In addition, greater resistance of the horns sheathed is observed in the indirect traction test; the horns of greater longitudinal and diameter resisted the highest pressures, and the corneal bone mostly absorbed the pressure exerted.<br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Juan Manuel Lomillos José Ramiro González-Montaña Marta Elena Alonso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 40 1 1 9 10.15359/rcv.40-1.4