Effect of the city of Limón marine residual waters outfall discharges on water quality and phytoplankton abundance and diversity in the surroundings of Uvita Island, Costa Rica

Keywords: Wastewater, water quality, Enterococcus, microalgae, nutrients

Abstract

In order to assess the possible impact of the marine outfall of the city of Limón on the surrounding marine environment, six sampling stations were established, four near the vent zone and two controls. Water samples were taken in each station 0m and 10m deep during 2012- 2013 to measure nutrients, physicochemical parameters, microalgae concentration, and colony forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus. Microalgae abundance was compared between stations under outfall influence, their controls and depths using an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM). A SIMPER analysis was also conducted to determine species when significant differences were found. Phytoplankton abundance was also used to rank the dominance of species using the Olmstead-Tukey diagram and a canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that in the area, there is a marked influence of rainfall on nutrients, silicate and orthophosphate, in addition to parameters such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. The dissolved oxygen concentration was high, reflecting that there is no significant organic load in the environment, while CFUs remained in ranges well below the maximum limits (35 UFC/100 mL) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Phytoplankton diversity was high and composed mostly of cosmopolitan species. Due to the low nutrient concentration and CFU counts, together with the high microalgae diversity, it is concluded that there is no direct evidence of a negative impact of the marine outfall on the studied area.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ávalos, A. (2004). Limón ya tiene un sistema de aguas negras. La Nación. https://www.nacion.com/el-pais/limon-ya-tiene-un-sistema-de-aguas-negras/HGXD26REZVHRZBO4OCX7O6ZATI/story/
Brenes-Rodríguez, C. L. & Benavides-Morera, R. (2015). Características termohalinas de las aguas costeras del Caribe Sur de Costa Rica. Rev. Mar. Cost., 7, 27-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/revmar.7.2.
Carvajal, M. (2005). Sistema de aguas negras de Limón Opera al 100 por ciento. La Nación. https://www.nacion.com/el-pais/sistema-de-aguas-negras-de-limon-opera-al-100-por-ciento/FOODNXQRCFAKNHIPRJ65ICPNXU/story/
Chinchilla, R. G. (2013). Resumen meteorológico setiembre de 2013. Costa Rica. Instituto Metereológico Nacional.
Clesceri, L., Greenberg, A. & Eaton. A (Eds.) (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. EE.UU.: American Public Health Association
Cloern, J. E., Alpine, A. E., Cole, B. E., Wong, J. F. & Ball M.D. (1983) River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay Estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 16(4), 415-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(83)90103-8
COFEPRIS. (2020). Manual operativo: monitoreo de agua de contacto primario en el agua de mar de playas y cuerpos de agua dulce. https://www.gob.mx/cofepris/documentos/manual-operativo-monitoreo-de-agua-de-contacto-primario-en-el-agua-de-mar-de-playas-y-cuerpos-de-agua-dulce
Cuello, V. G., Llanos, E. N., Garaffo, G. V. & Jaubet, M. L. (2019). Emisario submarino de Mar del Plata (Argentina): ¿Cómo impactó su construcción en la comunidad bentónica intermareal? Ecol. Austral., 29, 028-040. https://doi.org/10.25260/EA.19.29.1.0.771
Drakulović D., Pestorić B., Kraus R., Ljubimir S. & Krivokapić S. (2016) Phytoplankton Community and Trophic State in Boka Kotorska Bay. In A. Joksimović, M. Djurović, A. Semenov, I. Zonn & A. Kostianoy (Eds.), The Boka Kotorska Bay Environment (pp 169-201). Switzerland: Springer.
García, R. A. & Luque, E. A. (2011). Evaluación ambiental de las aguas costeras y puertos deportivos a partir de la comunidad fitoplanctónica en las Islas Canarias, España. Tesis de doctorado no publicada, Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canarias, Gran Canarias.
Gianesella, F. M., Saldanha-Corrêa, P, M., Kutner, B. M. & Pompeu, M (1999). Assessment of plankton community and environmental conditions in São Sebastião Channel prior to the construction of a produced water outfall. Rev. Brasileira Oceanogr., 47(1), 29-46. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-77391999000100003.
Hansen, H. & Koroleff, F. (2007). Determination of nutrients. In K. Grasshoff & M. Ehrhardt (Eds.), Methods of Seawater Analysis (pp. 159-228). EE. UU.: Wiley-VCH. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527613984.ch10
Hulburt, E. M (1968). Phytoplankton Observations in the Western Caribbean Sea. Bull. Mar. Sci.,18(2), 388-399.
Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. (2016). Descripción del clima cantón de Limón. http://cglobal.imn.ac.cr/documentos/publicaciones/DescripciondelClimaSERIE/DescripcionClimaCantonLimon/html5/index.html?page=1&noflash
Jaanus, A., Toming, K., Hällfors, S. Kaljurand, K & Lips, I. (2009) Potential phytoplankton indicator species for monitoring Baltic coastal waters in the summer period. Hydrobiologia, 629, 157-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9768-y
Khan, S., Haque, M., Arakawa, O. & Onoue, Y. (1998). Physiological observations on a diatom Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve. Bangladesh J. Fish. Res., 2, 109-118.
Kumar, S. S., Nuncio, M. S., Ramaiah, N., Sardesai, S., Narvekar, J., Fernandes, V. & Paul, J. T. (2007). Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons. Deep-Sea Res., 9(54), 1619-1640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.002
Margalef, R. (1997). Turbulence and marine life. Sci. Mar., 61(1), 109-123.
Marín, R., Marquetti, M. & Díaz, M. (2009). Índices larvales de Aedes aegypti antes y después de intervenciones de control en Limón, Costa Rica. Rev. Cub. de Med. Trop., 2(61),1-10.
Miravet, M. E, Lugioyo, M., Loza, S., Enrique, D., Delgado, Y., Carmenate, M. & Pérez, D. M. (Eds.). (2009) Procedimientos para el monitoreo de la calidad ambiental en la zona marino costera a partir de microorganismos. Cuba. Ediciones Centenario
Mora-Alvarado, D. & Portuguez-Barquero, C. (2016). Cobertura de la disposición de excretas en Costa Rica en el periodo 2000-2014 y expectativas para el 2021. Rev. Tec. Marcha, 29(2), 43-62. https://doi.org/10.18845/tm.v29i2.2690
Morera, R. R. (2012). Resumen meteorológico setiembre de 2012. https://www.imn.ac.cr/documents/10179/14635/SEPTIEMBRE.
Muhammad-Adlan, A. H., Wan-Maznah, W.O., Khairun, Y., Chuah, C. C., Shahril, M. H. & Noh, M. (2012). Tropical Marine Phytoplankton Assemblages and Water Quality Characteristics Associated with Thermal Discharge from a Coastal Power Station. J. Nat. Sci. Res., 2, 88-99.
Naranjo, D. J. (2013). Resumen meteorológico marzo de 2013. https://www.imn.ac.cr/documents/10179/14637/MARZO.
Naranjo, D. J. & Poleo, B. D. (2012). Resumen meteorológico octubre de 2012. https://www.imn.ac.cr/documents/10179/14635/OCTUBRE.

Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P. R. … & Wagner, H. (2019). Ordination methods, diversity analysis and other functions for community and vegetation ecologists. Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R Package Version 2.5-7. Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Parnell, P. E. (2003). The effects of sewage discharge on water quality and phytoplankton of Hawai'ian coastal waters. Mar. Env. Res., 55(4), 293-311. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00275-1
Paul, J. T., Ramaiah, N. & Sardessai, S. (2008). Nutrient regimes and their effect on distribution of phytoplankton in the Bay of Bengal. Mar. Envir. Res., 66, 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.05.007.
Peperzak, L., Colijn, F., Koeman, R., Gieskes, W. W. & Joordens, J. C. (2003). Phytoplankton sinking rate in the Rhine region of freshwater influence. J. Plankton Res., 25(4), 365-383. https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/25.4.365
PROIGE-AyA. (1999). Informe. Estudio de impacto ambiental del proyecto emisario submarino para la Ciudad de Limón. Costa Rica: Sin editorial.
Quinlan, E. L. & Philips, E. J. (2007). Phytoplankton assemblages across the marine to low-salinity transition zone in a blackwater dominated estuary. J. Plankton Res., 29(5), 401-416. https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbm024
Ramírez, C. J. & Salazar, M. E. (2005). Calidad de aguas residuales en los sistemas de depuración operados y administrados por AYA y estudios especiales de interés institucional (Informe 2005). Costa Rica: Sin editorial.
Salas, H. J. (2000). Emisarios submarinos alternativa viable para la disposición de aguas negras de ciudades costeras en América Latina y el Caribe. Perú: CEPIS.
Sánchez, S., Martínez, M. E., Molina, E. & Casa, J. A. (1995). Skeletonema costatum as a potential source of fatty acids and single-cell protein (SCP): The effect of pH on growth rate and biomass composition. Mar. Biotechnol., 2, 23-26.
Sokal, R. R. & Rohlf, F. J. (1970). Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General), 133(1), 102-102. https://doi.org/10.2307/2343822
Sournia, A. (1978). Phytoplankton Manual. France: UNESCO
Stanca, E. y Parsons, L. (2017). Phytoplankton diversity along spatial and temporal gradients in the Florida Keys. J. Plankton Res., 39(3), 531-549. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00275-1
Tian, Y., Mingjiang, Z. & Peiyuan, Q. (2002) Combined effects of temperature, irradiance and salinity on growth of diatom Skeletonema costatum. Chin. J. Ocean. Limnol., 20, 237-243. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02848852
Tinoco, Q. J. (2007). Manual de técnicas analíticas para la determinación de parámetros fisicoquímicos y contaminantes marinos: Aguas, sedimentos y organismos. Colombia: INVEMAR.
Toledo, H., Hernández, C., Rodríguez, C., Bittner, V., Ferreira, L. & Orellana, F. (2005). Estudio de la contaminación fecal mensual y estacional en la zona costera adyacente al emisario submarino en la bahía de puerto Montt. Gayana (Concepc.), 69(1), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382005000100011
Trainer, V. L, Stephen, S. B., Lundholm, N., Thessen, A. E., Cochlan, P. W., Adams, N. G. & Trick, G. C. (2012). Pseudo-nitzschia physiological ecology, phylogeny, toxicity, monitoring and impacts on ecosystem health. Harmful Algae, 14(2012), 271-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2011.10.025
Troccoli, G. L., Herrera-Silveira, J. & Comín, F. A. (2004). Structural variations of phytoplankton in the coastal seas of Yucatan, Mexico. Hydrobiologia, 519, 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:HYDR.0000026487.78497.b6
USEPA. (2006). Method 1600: Enterococci in Water by Membrane Filtration Using membrane-Enterococcus Indoxyl-β-D-Glucoside Agar (mEI). (Report # 821-R-02-022). EE. UU.: Government printing office.
USEPA. (2012). Recreational Water Quality Criteria. https://www.epa.gov/wqc/2012-recreational-water-quality-criteria
Vajravelu, M., Mariasingarayan, Y., Saravanakumar, A. & Mayakrishnan, M. (2018). Seasonal influence of physico-chemical parameters on phytoplankton diversity, community structure and abundance at Parangipettai coastal waters, Bay of Bengal, South East Coast of India. Oceanologia, 60(2), 114-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceano.2017.08.003
Varona-Cordero, F. & Gutiérrez-Mendieta, F. (2003). Estudio multivariado de la fluctuación espacio-temporal de la comunidad fitoplanctónica en dos lagunas costeras del estado de Chiapas. Hidrobiológica, 13(3), 177-194.
Varona-Cordero, F., Gutiérrez-Mendieta, F. & Castillo, M. M. (2010). Phytoplankton assemblages in two compartmentalized coastal tropical lagoons (Carretas-Pereyra and Chantuto-Panzacola, Mexico). J. Plankton Res., 32, 1283-1299. https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbq043
Vergaray, G., Méndez, C.R., Morante, H. Y., Heredia, V. & Béjar, V. (2007). Enterococcus y Escherichia coli como indicadores de contaminación fecal en playas costeras de Lima. Rev. Inst. Inves. FIGMMG., 10(20), 82-86.
Vidal, T., Calado, A., Moita, M., & Cunha, M. (2017). Phytoplankton dynamics in relation to seasonal variability and upwelling and relaxation patterns at the mouth of Ria de Aveiro (West Iberian Margin) over a four-year period. PloS one, 12(5), e0177237. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177237
Vilicic, D., Krsinic, F., Caric, M., Jasprica, N., Bobanovic, S. & Mikus, J. (1995). Plankton and hydrography in a modera¬tely eutrophicated eastern Adriatic bay (Gruz Bay). Hydrobiologia, 304, 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00006876
Vinayachandran, P. N., Murty, V. S. & Ramesh Babu, V. (2002). Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (12), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000831
Zrinka, L., Suncica, B., Damir, V., Borojevic, K., Pfannkuchen, D., Jelena, G., Ivana, U., Peharec Štefanić, P. & Djakovac, T. (2011). Ecology and taxonomy of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species in Lim Bay (north-eastern Adriatic Sea). Harmful Algae, 10, 713-722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2011.06.002
Published
2020-10-20
How to Cite
Muñoz Simon, N., Piedra Castro, L., Jiménez Montealegre, R., Pereira Chaves, J., Guevara-Mora, M., & Piedra Marín, G. (2020). Effect of the city of Limón marine residual waters outfall discharges on water quality and phytoplankton abundance and diversity in the surroundings of Uvita Island, Costa Rica. Journal of Marine and Coastal Sciences, 12(2), 115-141. https://doi.org/10.15359/revmar.12-2.6

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)