Determinación del grado de actividad física e intención de cambio en niñas y niños que participaron en las Escuelas Deportivas y Recreativas del Verano del 2005 de la Universidad de Costa Rica

  • Yamileth Chacón Araya Universidad de Costa Rica
  • José Moncada Jiménez Universidad de Costa Rica
Keywords: transtheoretical model, exercise, physical education, physical activity, sedentary, children

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the levels of physical activity and potential for behavior change among children and youth who participated in a structured summer camp program in physical activity and sports at the University of Costa Rica. Participants were 113 subjects with an age range between 8 and 16 years. Subjects responded to a “Stages of Change” questionnaire, and also to items regarding habitual physical activity, and opportunities for becoming physically-active. Statistical analysis showed that 80.5% of the participants exercised regularly (i.e., for at least for three consecutive months). It was estimated that 50.4% of the participants did not have the opportunity to play outdoors without parental and/or legal supervision, and that about 91.2% considered important to exercise along with their parents. From the sample studied, it was found that 94.7% had consistently received only one or two formal Physical Education classes throughout their lives; which might impact their future physical and psychological health and their possibilities to achieve a desired exercise adherence. Only 67.3% of the participants were classified in a stage based on the Stages of Change Model for physical activity, with 55.8% from those belonging to the maintenance stage.

This is the first attempt to investigate the intention to change in Costa Rica children; however, the results from the present study are consistent with those reported in other countries. In conclusion, the Transtheoretical Model Behavior Change might be appropriate to detect disposition to change from detrimental behaviors towards a positive and healthy lifestyle in children and adolescents. Further research is needed to study moderator variables that might impact behavior changes in this population.

Author Biographies

Yamileth Chacón Araya, Universidad de Costa Rica

Graduada de la Maestría en Psicopedagogía en la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED), Costa Rica. Obtuvo la Licenciatura en Educación Física de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). Profesora de la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes, de la Universidad de Costa Rica y coordinadora de Vida Estudiantil de esa unidad académica. Algunos artículos publicados: “Composición corporal de bailarines costarricenses de danza contemporánea”, ”El trabajo con cuerdas en los niños” en coautoría con Yamileth Chacón Araya. Además ha publicado sobre el tema de la creatividad de jóvenes universitarios.

José Moncada Jiménez, Universidad de Costa Rica

Es Magíster Scientiae (M.Sc.) en Ciencias del Movimiento con énfasis en Fisiología del Ejercicio de Springfield College, Massachusetts (USA). Actualmente cursa el programa del Doctorado en Ciencias en la Universidad de Costa Rica y ha realizado estudios de posgrado e investigación en The Ohio State University y en Auburn University (USA). Ha sido juez en el área de ciencias del ejercicio durante la Feria Científica del Estado de Ohio (USA), y ha recibido becas de investigación y estudios de posgrado del Gatorade Sports Science Institute, la Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociado (FIFA), el International Center for Sports Studies (CIES), The University of Neuchâtel, la Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA), y Ohio State University. Es docente en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes y en la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Fue instructor y asistente de investigación, medición y evaluación y estadística en Springfield College (USA). Actualmente es el director de Laboratorio de Ciencias del Movimiento Humano (LACIMOV) de la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

References

American College of Sports Medicine. (2000). A CSM 's guidelines Jor exercise testing and prescription (61h Ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

American College of Sports Medicine. (2001). ACSM's resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (41h Ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Aveyard, P., Sherratt, E.,Almond, J., Lawrence, T., Lancashire, R., Griffin, C., & Cheng, K. K. (2001). The change-in-stage and updated smoking status results fonn a cluster-randomized trial of smoking prevention and cessation using the transtheoretical

model among British adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 333, 313-324.

Bond, M. T. & Peck, M. G. (1993). The risk of childhood injury on

Boston 's playground equipment and su,jaces. American Joumal of Public Health, 83, 731-733.

Buckworth, J. & Dishman, R. K. (2002). Exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Cardinal, B. J., Engels, H. J., & Zhu, W. (1998). Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change to preadolescent's physical activity and exercise behavior. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1 O, 69-80.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Playground safety-United States, 1998-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48(16), 329-332.

Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Committee on School Health. (2001). Organized sports for children and preadolescents. Pediatrics, 107, 1459-1462 ..

Cradock, A. L., Kawachi, l., Colditz, G. A., Hannon, C., Melly, S. J., Wiecha, J. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2005). Playground safety and access in Boston neighborlwods. American Joumal of Preventive Medicine, 28(4), 357-363.

Ellaway, A. & Macintyre, S. (1996). Does where you live predict health related behaviors? A case study in Glasgow. Health Bulletin (Edinburgh), 54, 443-446.

Femández, A., González, C., Moneada, J., Pearson, G., Picado, M. y Salas, R. (2001). Normas nacionales. Componentes de salud física: estudiantes costarricenses entre 8 y 17 años. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Baula.

Femández Ramírez, A. y Moneada Jiménez, J. (2003). Obesidad y sobrepeso en la población estudiantil costarricense entre los 8 y 17 años. En: Revista Costarricense de Ciencias Médicas, 24(3,4), 95-113.

Hausenblas, H. A., Nigg, C. R., Downs, D. S., & Connaughton, D. P. (2002). Perceptions of exercise stages, barrier self-efficacy, and decisional balance for middleschool students. Joumal of Early

Adolescence, 22(4), 436-454.

Herrera, L., Cortés, M., Herrera, R. y Arreguín, N. (1987). Matrogimnasia. México, D.F.: Editorial Didáctica Moderna, S.A.

Lee, R. E., Nigg, C. R., DiClemente, C. C., & Coumeya, K. A. (2001). Validating motivational readiness for exercise behavior with adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(4), 401-410.

Lidstone, J. E., Amundson, M. L., & Amundson, L. H. (1991). Depression and chronic fatigue in the high school student and athlete. Primary Care, 18(2), 283-296.

Macarthur, C., Hu, X., Wesson, D., & Parkin, P. (2000). Risk factors for severe injuries associated with fall from playground equipment. Accident Anal y sis & Prevention, 32(3), 377-382.

Mack, M. G., Hundson, S., & Thompson, D. (1997). A descriptive analysis of children s playground injuries in the United States 1990-4. Injury Prevention, 3, 100-103.

Maddison, R., Brading, F., & Prapavessis, H. (2002). Predicting exercise stage transition in an adolescent New Zealand population: a test of the transtheoretical model. Joumal of Science and Medicine in Sport ( Can berra, Aust. ), 5( 4 Suppl. ), 94.

Moncada, J. (4 de abril del 2004). Un gran cambio nacional. En: Periódico La Nación, Sección Opinión, p. 30-A.

Mott, A., Rolfe, K., James, R., Evans, R., Kemp, A., Dunstan, F., Kemp, K., & Sibert, J. (1997). Safety of surfaces and equipment far children in playgrounds. Lancet, 349(9069), 1874-1876.

Muñoz, C. M. (1996). Lo mejor para estimulación temprana. Colombia: AUnoA Editores.

Nigg, C. R. (2003). Do sport participation motivations add to the ability of the Transtheoretical Model to explain adolescent exercise behavior? Intemational Journal of Sport Psychology (Rome), 34(3), 208-225.

Prapavessis, H., Maddison, R., & Brading, F. (2004). Understanding exercise behavior among New Zealand adolescents: A test of the Transtheoretical Model. Joumal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 346e. l 7-346.e27.

Prochaska, J. O. & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change. American Joumal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 38-48.

Rhodes, R. E., Berry, T., Naylor, P. J., & Higgins, S. J. W. (2004). Three-step validation of exercise processes of change in an adolescent sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8(1), 1-20.

Salazar Salas, C. G. (2000). ¿Negligencia en la seguridad de los parques de juego?

En: Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública, 9(17), 1-9.

Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Prochaska, J. J., McKenzie, T. L., Marshall, S. J., & Brown, M. (2001 ). The association of school environments with youth physical activity. American Joumal of Public Health, 91(4), 618-620.

Scanlan, T. K. & Lewthwaite, R. ( 1988). From stress to enjoyment: Parental and coach influences on young participants. Brown, E. W. & Branta, C. F. (Eds.), Competitive sports far children and youth. An overview of research and issues. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Spencer, L. (2002). The change-in-stage and updated smoking status results from a cluster-randomized tria! of smoking prevention and cessation using the transtheoretical model among British adolescents. American Joumal of Health Promotion, 17(1), 82-83.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Understanding and lmproving Health (2nd Ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govemment Printing Office.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. ( 1996). Physical activity and health. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, The President's

Published
2006-06-30
How to Cite
Chacón Araya, Y., & Moncada Jiménez, J. (2006). Determinación del grado de actividad física e intención de cambio en niñas y niños que participaron en las Escuelas Deportivas y Recreativas del Verano del 2005 de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Revista Electrónica Educare, 9(2), 189-205. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.9-2.9
Section
Articles (Peer Reviewed Section)

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)