The Digital Paradox: Analysis of Differences in Teacher Implementing Technology Inside and Outside the Classroom

Keywords: Digital adoption in teaching, technological adoption levels, higher education, teaching practice


Background. In higher education, the evaluation of the use of technologies shows discrete results in terms of teaching. In a deeply technologized society, this fact contrasts with the high level of digitalization in the teachers’ daily practice: they regulate their lives according to the digital technology principles. Aims. This research aims to contrast the digital practices of teachers outside and inside the classroom based on a model of technological adoption that qualifies the uses of ICT and the level of appropriation that these uses imply. Method. This effect was analyzed using a non experimental descriptive methodology, and a survey was conducted to establish the level of technological adoption in teachers’ lives and teaching practices. Results. In private life, how teachers use technology allows the expansion of tasks carried out towards horizons that traditionally cannot be reached without its use. This is not the case in teaching, where the use of digital tools contributes to implementing traditional practices. Concerning teacher training, teachers perceive the need to direct it to expand the digital experience, although in their professional practice, they continue to have a clearer orientation towards reproducing those traditional practices. Conclusions. The results show that technological adoption in private life is mainly orientated towards a widening level, whereas teaching focuses more on switching traditional tasks to others that, even though they imply the use of digital technologies, do not innovate in practice.

Author Biographies

Rosario Freixas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Professor at the National School of Social Work at the National Autonomous University
of Mexico. Specialized in the creation, instrumentation and evaluation of
pedagogical models and designs and didactic materials at different levels. She has
worked as an instructor in teacher training.
She courses a Phd at the National University of Distance Education in Madrid, Spain.
Daniel Domínguez-Figaredo, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

PhD from the National University of Distance Education, in Madrid, where he is a professor and researcher.
Her research focuses on technological mediation and theories that support open and connected learning throughout life.  In his recent work, he has deeped into the analysis of open data-based education and
knowledge management in digital and mixed environments.

Fernando Gamboa-Rodríguez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Expert in design and evaluation of interactive spaces for education, PhD in Computer Science from the University of Paris 11, France. Since 1999 he works at UNAM, where he coordinates the project for "The Classroom of the Future". Teacher and tutor teacher in postgraduate courses in Mexico, France, Spain, Portugal and Peru. At the National Autonomous University of Mexico he coordinates the project "The classroom of the future"


Bauer, J. y Kenton, J. (2005). Toward technology integration in the schools: Why it isn’t happening. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 519-546.

Blundell, C., Lee, K.-T. y Nykvist, S. (2015). Conceptualising the challenge of integrating digital technologies in pedagogy. En G. Finger, and P. S. Ghirelli (Eds.), Educators on the Edge: Big ideas for change and innovation (44-51). Australian College of Educators.

Buabeng-Andoh, Ch. (2012). Factors influencing teachers’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 8(1), 136-155.

Bulman, G. y Fairlie, R. W. (2016). Technology and Education: Computers, software, and the internet. Handbook of Economics of Education, 5, 239-280.

Casas Anguita, J., Repullo Labrador, J. R. y Donado Campos, J. (2003). La encuesta como técnica de investigación. Elaboración de cuestionarios y tratamiento estadístico de los datos (I). Aten Primaria, 31(8), 527-538.

Coll, C. (2011). Aprender y enseñar con las TIC: Expectativas, realidad y potencialidades. En R. Carneiro, J. C. Toscano y T. Díaz (Coords.), Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (113-126). OEI; Fundación Santillana.

Florida Center for Instructional Technology. (2018). The technology integration matrix. University of South Florida.

Franklin, C. (2007). Factors that influence elementary teachers use of computers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(2), 267-293.

Freixas Flores, M. del R. (2018). Las TIC en el aula desde la práctica reflexiva: Modificando estrategias docentes. En B. Malik Liévano y P. Mata (Coords.), Investigación educativa: Cuestiones éticas e impacto social (pp. 69-79). UNED.

Hattie, J. y Yates, G. (2014). Visible learning and the science of how we learn. Routledge.

Hew, K. F. y Brush, T. (2007). Integrating Technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223-252.

Hooper, S. y Rieber, L. P. (1995). Teaching with technology. En A. C. Ornstein (Ed.). Teaching. Theory into practice (pp. 154-170). Allyn and Bacon.

Inan, F. A. y Lowther, D. L. (2010). Factorsa affecting technology integration in K-12 classrooms: A path model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 137-154.

Jonassen, D. H., Carr, C. y Yueh, H.-P. (1998). Computers as mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking. TechTrends, 43(2), 24-32.

Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G. y Wachira, P. (2008). Computer technology integration and student learning: Barriers and promise. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 560-565.

Levin, T. y Wadmany, R. (2008). Teachers’ views on factors affecting effective integration of information technology in the classroom: Developmental scenery. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(2), 233-263.

Li, Y., Garza, V., Keicher, A. y Popov, V. (2018). Predicting high school teacher use of technology: Pedagogical beliefs, technological beliefs and attitudes, and teacher training. Tech Know Learn, 24(3), 501-518.

Lugo, M. T., López, N. y Toranzos L. (Coordinadores). (2014). Informe sobre tendencias sociales y educativas en América Latina 2014. Políticas TIC en los sistemas educativos de América Latina. UNESCO; IIPE – UNESCO; OEI.

Mueller, J. y Wood, E. (2012). Patterns of beliefs, attitudes, and characteristics of teachers that influence computer integration. Education Research International, Artículo ID 697357, 1-13.

NewZoo. (2018). Global Mobile Market Report.

Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development. (2017). OECD digital economy outlook 2017. OECD Publishing.

Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development. (2018). Education at a glance 2018: OECD indicators. OECD Publishing.

Palak, D. y Walls, R. T. (2009). Teachers’ beliefs and technology practices: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 417-441.

Plair, S. K. (2008). Revamping professional development for technology integration and fluency. Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(2) 70-74.

Rangaswamy, A. y Gupta, S. (2000). Innovation adoption and diffusion in the digital environment: some research opportunities. EBRC.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. Free Press.

Schön, D. A. (1992). La formación de profesionales reflexivos. Hacia un nuevo diseño de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje en las profesiones. Paidós.

Somekh, B. (2007). Pedagogy and learning with ICT. Researching the art of innovation. Routledge.

Sousa, V. D., Driessnack, M. y Mendes, I. A. C. (2007). An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: Quantitative research designs. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem, 15(3), 502-507.〈=e s

van der Akker, J., Keursten, P. y Plomp, T. (1992). The integration of computer use in education. International Journal of Educational Research, 17(1), 65-75.

Wozney, L., Venkatesh, V. y Abrami, P. (2006). Implementing computer technologies: Teachers’ perceptions and practices. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(1), 173-207.

Yildirim, S. (2000). Effects of an educational computing course on preservice and in service teachers: A discussion and analysis of attitudes and use. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(4), 479-495.

How to Cite
Freixas, R., Domínguez-Figaredo, D., & Gamboa-Rodríguez, F. (2022). The Digital Paradox: Analysis of Differences in Teacher Implementing Technology Inside and Outside the Classroom. Revista Electrónica Educare, 26(2), 1-20.
Articles (Peer Reviewed Section)

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)