El concepto de esquema corporal en niñas y niños con y sin necesidades educativas especiales, de preescolar, segundo y cuarto grado
his research on the concept of body parts held by preschool, second and fourth grade children with and without special needs provides relevant information on how they construct their body parts concept.
Most of the studied students with special needs show body concepts related to body characteristics and qualities, although some of them also make reference to body skills. It is important to highlight that these concepts are not all too different from those expressed by the group of students without special needs.
The number of body parts listed by students increases with their educational level, as shown in the graphic representations the students made of their bodies. However, most special needs students have greater difficulty in locating body parts and their laterality. We have found that as students with special needs increase their level of education, they are more likely to take on domestic chores and to find school activities more difficult. They also report feeling uncomfortable when people of higher rank make comments related to their bodies. Even so, most students with and without special needs show a positive perception of their bodies and feel respect for themselves.
Based on these findings, we recommend that all educational processes take into account students’ previous knowledge and emphasize not only the teaching of body-related concepts but also concepts related to body image. Teaching activities must also allow students to experience and construct the studied concepts, thus avoiding any wrong learning in the acquisition of concepts about their bodies, or compensating for the educational needs that may derive from a disability.