Guidelines for authors
Instructions for publication in the Journal of History (Revista de Historia) 
 We extend our acknowledgement to Ph.D. Stephen Webre, Professor Emeritus of History at Louisiana Tech University for his support with the English language review of this document.
The Journal of History uses the Chicago-Deusto-style notes and bibliography system as exclusive regulations for publication. The following guidelines are based on the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (Bilbao, Spain: Publications of the University of Deusto, 2013). For more information, see the full manual.
1. In order to be received and, possibly, approved for submission to the arbitration system, the proposals must comply, without exception, with the basic rules detailed herein.
2. If plagiarism or any other practice that contradicts the History Journal Codeof Ethics is detected, the proposal will not be considered.
3. The works must be original and have not been published previously. Authors whose proposals are approved for submission to the arbitration system must sign the Declaration of Originality and Assignment of Rights.
4. It is the sole responsibility of the authors to obtain the necessary permissions for the reproduction of any work, whether from the holder of copyright or the institutions responsible for the custody of the material. In this regard, proponents must sign the Declaration of Originality and Assignment of Rights, acknowledging the use of copyrighted material and attach documentation of the appropriate permission.
5. Proposals are submitted in compatible formats such as Word Document 97-2004 format (.doc) —compatibility mode— to the email: email@example.com
6. The legth of arbitrated articles, including notes, can vary between 7000 words —equivalent to 20 letter-sized pages, spacing 1.5 lines, in Letter Times New Roman 12 points— and 12,500 words — equivalent to 30-35 pages with the same specifications. In non-refereed sections length of the works will be 3000 to 6000 words —6 to 12 pages —, with the same specifications.
7. Under the title, in italics, the author's first and last name are indicated. Next to this data, the following information is indicated by an asterisk (*) as a footnote:
- Education: Highest academic degree obtained and institution where awarded.
- Institutional affiliation: Academic positions author currently occupies, workplace or institutional affiliation. You must specify the state, country and the official—full—name of the institution, as well as the department, office, school, or faculty with which you are affiliated. If you do not have membership, you must indicate "independent scholar", "independent investigator" or equivalent.
- Email—preferably institutional.
- Attach the Open Investigator and Contributor Identifier (ORCID), corresponding link. An author who does not possess an ORCID identity may obtain one at https://orcid.org/signin.
- Example: * Nationality. Full name, first and second surname. Master's in History from the National University (UNA), «Omar Dengo» Headquarters, Heredia, Costa Rica. Teacher and researcher at the School of History of the National University (UNA), «Omar Dengo» Headquarters, Heredia, Costa Rica. Email: ... ORCID: ...
8. All proposals, without exception — both for refereed and non-refereed sections — should contain:
- Short summary —maximum 150 words, minimum 100 — in Spanish and English.
- Title of the article in both Spanish and English.
- Six key words (in Spanish and English) standardized through the UNESCO
- History will always be a default keyword.
9. Quotes and references. All proposals, without exception — both for those for the arbitrated and un-arbitrator sections — must abide by the notes and bibliography system corresponding to the Chicago-Deusto style stipulated in theShort Guide for Quotes and Bibliographic References, edited by the University of Deusto. The bibliography must appear at the end of the article.
Quotes and dialogue
10. For more information on quotations and dialogue, allowable changes in quotations, quotations in relation to text (inserted or separate quotes; assimilation to surrounding text; uppercase or lowercase initial letter; introductory expressions and punctuation; division into paragraphs; poetry), quotation marks (Latin, double or simple quotations; inserted quotes from more than one paragraph; omission of quotation marks; speeches, dialogues and conversations; theater, debates and interviews, fieldnotes), ellipsis, interpolations and clarifications, citation of sources in the text (references after quotations inserted in the text; references after separate quotations from the text), quotes in foreign⎯language, see: Chicago-Deusto style Edition adapted to Spanish (Bilbao, Spain: Publications of the University of Deusto, 2013), second part, chapter 13.
11. If the work was extracted from the internet, the URI, URL or DOI must be indicated. All hyperlinks, including email addresses, must conclude with a period. For example: HYPERLINK "http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/historia."
12. Textual quotations of less than four lines are left within the paragraph and indicated by enclosing them in Latin quotation marks (« ») and without italics, in the font specified for footnotes. Larger quotes are placed in a separate paragraph, without quotation marks, 11-point font size, and double-indented in the left and right margins.
13. In the text, the number that refers to the footnote reference will appear after the comma, semi-colon, or period.
14. If a textual quotation enclosed in Latin quotation marks (« ») includes words, sentences, or quoted expressions, the high or English quotation marks (" ") must be used to distinguish them from quotation marks enclosing the entire quotation.
15. Notes or explanations in a textual quotation are enclosed in square brackets [ ] and without italics. To indicate that the quotation is fragmented, use square brackets and ellipsis, as follows: [...]
16. Works must contain notes and bibliography. Notes are presented at the footer by running numbering. The first time a work is quoted should appear with the complete bibliographic reference. For proper form, see the Short Guide for Citations and Bibliographic References. At the end of the article includes bibliography and primary sources used in alphabetical order according to surnames using hanging indentation.
17. The sources of words, sentences, paragraphs, or ideas that are paraphrased must be explicitly identified.
18. When appropriate citations to works consulted may include the specific edition, printing, or reproduction referred to.
19. Use of ibid.: As stipulated in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 639): «The abbreviation ibid. (ibid., "in the same place") usually refers to a work that has been cited in the immediately preceding note. It should never be used if the previous note contains more than one citation. It assumes the place of the author's name (or authors) or publisher (or publishers), the title of the work and all the following elements that are identical. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other details, is identical, use only the word ibid». From the second time an author's work is quoted, the title of the abbreviated work is always used, regardless of whether they use several works by the same author. Do not use cit, art.cit, op.cit., or idem. For example:
20. For all its purposes, the provisions of the Law on Copyright and Related Rights No. 6683,decreed by the Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Costa Rica, is complied with. For more information, see: Yorleni Beatriz Campos Flores and Cynthia María Céspedes Alfaro, Intellectual Guardian: Guide on Forms of Intellectual Property Protection (San José, Costa Rica: Vice-Chancellor of Research, University of Costa Rica, 2014), PDF edition.
21. It is the sole responsibility of the authors to obtain the respective permissions for the use, reproduction, creation of derivative works or adaptations of any work under intellectual property, whether from the depositaries of the rights —copyright— or of the institutions responsible for the custody of the material. In this regard, proponents must sign the ''Letter of Originality and Assignment of Rights'', demonstrate and attach the corresponding permit.
22. Duration of intellectual property rights. According to Yorleni Beatriz Campos Flores and Cynthia María Céspedes Alfaro, Intellectual Guardian: guide on forms of intellectual property protection (San José, Costa Rica: Vice-Chancellor of Research, University of Costa Rica, 2014), PDF edition, 15: "Moral rights are perpetual. As for economic rights, in Costa Rica they are protected for the life of the author and up to 70 years after his death. There are other deadlines, such as 80 or 100 years according to the legislation of the country. Once this time has expired, the work becomes in the public domain."
23. The Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 131) states: «It is usually appropriate, and sometimes required by the owner of the illustration, to include a brief explanation of the origin of the illustration, known as credit. Reproduction of copyrighted illustrative material, whether previously published or not, may require the authorization of the rights owner. One cannot photograph a Monet and use the photo to illustrate the story of the haystacks; before attempting to reproduce the painting, written permission must be obtained, as well as a paper copy of the work, both provided by the museum or person to whom it belongs. Nor can a photograph or other type of portrait of a recognizable person be used without their consent or that of someone acting on their behalf». For example, it is not true that any image or photograph available on any other website, may be cited or used without the consent of the copyright holder.
24. Following the guideline of the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 132): «Except in case of lawful use ..., an illustration reproduced from a work published under copyright always requires formal authorization. In addition to the author, title, publication details and (in certain cases) copyright date, credits must include the corresponding page or figure number».
25. Works in the public domain or under Creative Commons (CC) licenses do not require authorization for use. However, it will always be mandatory to indicate their origins, authorships, names or titles, dates of creation, modification and reproduction and other necessary data to identify them and inform the reader.
26. On the provenance of the works. In the first instance, authors must ensure that works consulted and quoted come from their authentic — that is, original — place or place of origin. For example, the use of photographs taken from a certain social network is considered bad practice and inappropriate, assuming, a priori, the website's web address as the purported source and/or original origin of the work. In these cases, the authors must find out whether it is a legal reproduction, whether the person or institution that shared it electronically has the appropriate permission or, failing that, if any, contact the authentic depositary of copyright or intellectual property to request permission of use or reuse as the case may be.
27. Authors must abide by the requirements of the different types of Creative Commons licenses when the works they cite or use are under such licenses.
Source: Marko Txopitea "Txopi", https://ikusimakusi.eus/2018/cc- traffic-light-3-0/, 22 July 2018. Available under CC0 1.0 Universal license (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication.
Note: Creative Commons semaphore. The symbol (C) refers to the most restrictive (and frequent) copyright licenses. The inverted symbol (C) refers to copyleft. The strikethrough symbol (C) refers to anticopyright. The symbol (CC) refers to the scope covered by Creative Commons. The green seal refers to free cultural works.
Spelling, typography, names, titles and punctuation
28. It is recommended to comply with the provisions of the Royal Spanish Academy and the BBVA Fundéu (Foundation of Urgent Spanish) for the standardized use of the Spanish language.
29. Page breaks should not be included anywhere in the text.
30. Proposals must be delivered in Times New Roman letter, number 12 and at space and a half —1.5 lines. Fonts and notes in illustrations and tables are written in letter number 10.
31. Geographical accidents are written in lowercase as follows: Quiribrí Island; Yucatan Peninsula; Central American isthmus; Atlantic Sea; Pacific Ocean; Virgin Islands; The Andean mountain range; Andes mountain range; Valley of Mexico, etc. Also, as clarified in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 340): "The descriptive or specific terms used to delimit a territory are generally written in lowercase: southern Italy, eastern Canada, upper Nile, dry Spain, tropical Africa, southern Europe, the French Basque Country. These words, however, are distinguished by initial capital letters when they enter the usual designation of a geographical area or when they designate it directly: Latin America, the Middle East, Southern Cone. West Indies, Lower Navarre, West, Indias Midwest».
32. Within the body of the text, book and Journal titles should appear in Titles of articles or chapters of books are enclosed in Latin quotation marks (« »). In addition, in Spanish the title of a work begins with a capital letter, but the remaining word will be lower case.
33. Quotes are not used in the headings.
34. The title of the work is written centered, lowercase, and bold. It is not followed by a period. Below this, type the translation of the title in English. If the title of the work contains, in turn, the title of another work, it does not translate into English unless there is an official translation, or it has been published in the latter language.
35. Subtitles are not numbered. They are written in lower case, bold, and left-aligned. They do not close with periods.
36. The first line of a new paragraph must be indented.
37. Exclamation points and question marks are terminal and do not call for periods after them.
38. With the exception of years or periods, to include explanations within the text should not use the parentheses, but the long hyphen or streak (—).
39. With exception of the title and subtitles, all text is justified.
40. Unless they are particularly high-ranking designations, in which the person's proper name is not necessarily mentioned — for example: His Holiness; the Commander-in-Chief; Mister President, etc.— The names of positions, jobs and honorary or dignity degrees are written in lowercase initial. For example: el presidente Néstor; el papa Francisco; el general de Gaulle; el alférez de la Serna; el padre Fernando, etc.
41. Denominations of ethnic groups, peoples, tribes or races are capitalized in English, but not in Spanish. For example: Aztecs/aztecas, Maya culture/cultura maya, Guarani/guaraní, etc.
42. Historical and cultural events and terms. According to the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 353- 363):
- The proper names of historical or cultural phenomena that include a numerical term bear initial capital letters: the Fifth French Republic; the Seventh Dynasty; World War II; Etc.
- Descriptive designations of historical periods, when they are not traditionally accepted proper names, must be written in lowercase letters: imperial Rome; colonial America; the interwar period; pre-Hispanic Mexico, etc.
- Certain designations of historical or prehistoric periods are traditionally considered proper names: the Great Depression; the Cold War; the Middle Ages; Antiquity, the Old Regime; The Reformation; The Counter-Reformation, etc.
- The names of historical or prehistoric periods conventionally defined as ages or delimited by historiography are written in initial capital letters: the Ancient Age; the Stone Age; The Contemporary Age; the Middle Ages, the Reconquest; The New Deal, etc.
- The lowercase letter should be used in designations that are dubious or not well armed by tradition: the Korean war; independence of Latin America; conquest of the West, etc.
- The terms used to designate great artistic movements or trends, fashions, doctrines, opinion streams, scientific or philosophical systems or cultural trends that came to characterize an era are capitalized: the Enlightenment; the Renaissance; Romanticism; Baroque, etc.
- The names of months, seasons and days of the week are only initial capitalized when they enter into the specific designation of a historical event, a holiday, a street, a building, etc.: the First of May; Palm Sunday; Prague Spring, etc.
- For military terms, see: Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (Bilbao, Spain: Publications of the University of Deusto, 2013), 374-377.
- For scientific terminology, see: Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (Bilbao, Spain: Publications of the University of Deusto, 2013), 378-390.
Illustrations and tables
43. Tables and figures must be delivered separately on an Excel file.
44. Illustrations—maps, graphics, drawings, photographs, etc. —must be presented in at least 300 dots per inch (dpi) or 1600x1200 pixels resolution. If presented in vector format, they must come as eps, ai , ai psd , or xcf If submitted in bitmap format, the file can be tiff, jpg, psd, or eps.
45. Illustrations, maps, tables, charts, photographs, and other iconographic material are numbered separately with Arabic numerals. Double numbering and Roman numerals should not be used.
46. In the text, the mention of illustrations and tables should be made with lowercase and Arabic numerals. For example: Figure 5, map 3, table 4, graph 6, etc.
47. As recommended in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 119): «Illustrations (whether hatched images or linear art) interspersed in the text are usually figures, but specific types of illustrations, such as maps or sheet music quotations, are designated by their corresponding categories, rather than by the generic term "figure"».
48. The titles of the illustrations and tables are placed on top, left-aligned, centered, and font size 11. The name of the illustration or table is written in bold and uppercase capitalized. Following a period, the rest of the title appears. It is not set in bold and it does not conclude with a period. On the recommendation of the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to the Spanish (2013,140) seat: «Titles should be as short as possible and should not imply any interpretation of the data. For example, a title such as "Recidivism among former probation officers" is preferable to "High rate of recidivism among former probation reform inmates". Titles should be substantive, and participles preferable to relative propositions, for example “Families Subscribing to Weekly Newspapers,” not “Families that Subscribe to Weekly Newspapers”
Table 5. Population in extreme poverty and poverty according to geographical area. Percentage of total population by geographic area. Costa Rica (2000-2005)
Source: Statistical Databases and Publications, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Table generated from the ECLACSTAT system, https://cepalstat-prod.cepal.org/cepalstat/tabulador/ConsultaIntegrada.asp?idIndicador=3328&idioma=e.
49. At the foot of all illustrations and tables should appear the source from which they were extracted or created; failing that, «"author’s elaboration" or "author’s elaboration from..."» may be used if appropriate. The fonts for these are written in letter 10 points. As mentioned in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 67): «The source notes appear at the bottom of the table before any other note. They are preceded by the word "Source" followed by a colon. The other notes related to the table generally go after any source note and can be preceded by the word "Note" followed by a colon. Specific notes follow any other note and must bear their own numbering (preferably letters; see 3.77), concerning parts of the table. They should never be numbered in the same series as the notes in the text».
Numbers and units
50. As specified in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 414): «In non-technical contexts, Chicago-Deusto recommends writing out the whole numbers from zero to one hundred, and certain round multiples of those numbers».
51. Hundreds, thousands, and hundreds of thousands of whole numbers are usually written out in non-specialized, or scientific contexts, either to express exact amounts or approximations. Alternatively, official figures are written with Arabic numerals.
52. Consistency and flexibility. Following the instructions in the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 416): «When multiple numbers appear in a paragraph or series of paragraphs, keep consistency in the immediate context. If according to the rule, figures for a number in a given category should be used, use them for all numbers in that category. However, in the same sentence or paragraph it is permissible to write the numbers of one category with figures and numbers of a different category with letters'».
53. For figures referring to money—use of monetary words or symbols and figures, world currencies, large amounts of money, etc.—please refer to the Chicago-Deusto-style manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (Bilbao, Spain: Publications of the University of Deusto, 2013), 421-
54. Numbers relating to pages, chapters, volumes, and other divisions of a book, as well as numbers relating to illustrations or tables, are represented by Arabic numerals.
55. Centuries are written in Roman numerals in small caps.
56. Decades can be represented by numerals—as long as the century is not ambiguous—.
57. The comma is used for decimals. According the Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 430): «In the SI, and so advised by the RAE narrow spaces are used instead of dots to separate groups of three digits, both left and right of the decimal point (represented by a comma except in English-speaking countries). In four-digit numbers, whether to the left or right of the decimal point, a space is not used (except in the columns in the tables, where the column includes other numbers of five or more digits)».
58. The Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 426) stresses that: "The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a style composed only of figures, formatted year-month-day (i.e. from highest to lowest component) separated by hyphens. The year is written in full, and the month and day, if they have a single digit, preceded by a zero. Thus, on January 19, 2010 it is represented as 2010-01-19. Among other advantages, this style allows you to correctly sort dates in electronic spreadsheets and other applications. However, this ISO standard is not yet widespread in Spanish texts".
59. When the date of publication of a work cannot be determined, the place of the year must be occupied by the abbreviation f. which means,"undated".
60. In the case of acronyms, the first time mentioned in the text should indicate the full name and, in long hyphens, the explanation, "hereafter". For example:
- Universidad Nacional -hereafter, UNA-: Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación -herafter- UNESCO- etc.
61. Use of sic: The Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 613) explains that: «The particle sic (literally "as", "this way"), traditionally written in italics, can be inserted in square brackets after a word misspelled or misused in the original. Such a resource should only be used when it is relevant to draw attention to such errors (and especially where readers may assume that the error occurred in the transcription and not in the original) or in cases where paraphrase or silent correction is inadequate».
62. If not adopted by Spanish words from other languages should appear in italics.
63. In English titles, the style in that language will be respected, that is, each important word in the title (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, but usually not conjunctions or prepositions) should be capitalized.
64. All textual quotations that are originally in a language other than Spanish, or any word, phrase or title that merits translation, must be presented translated into Spanish next to the original quotation and enclosed in parentheses ( ), in a footnote enclosed in parentheses if its extension exceeds four sentences.
65. On the use of italics in foreign words and Latinisms. The Chicago-Deusto Style Manual. Edition adapted to Spanish (2013, 299) clarifies that: «Italics are used for isolated words and phrases in foreign languages that have not yet been adapted to the Spanish language and with which readers may not be familiar [...]».
Ejemplos de formato para las referencias (notas al pie de página y bibliografía)
- Libro: un autor
Nota al pie de página:
Juan José Marín Hernández, La tierra del pecado, entre la quimera y el anhelo: historia de la prostitución en Costa Rica (1750-2005) (San José, Costa Rica: Librería Alma Mater y Sociedad Nueva Cultura, 2006), 99.
Marín Hernández, Juan José. La tierra del pecado, entre la quimera y el anhelo: historia de la prostitución en Costa Rica (1750-2005). San José, Costa Rica: Librería Alma Mater y Sociedad Nueva Cultura, 2006.
- Libro: varios autores
Nota al pie de página:
Iván Molina Jiménez y Fabrice Lehoucq, Urnas de lo inesperado: fraude electoral y lucha política en Costa Rica (1901-1948) (San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 1999), 24.
Molina Jiménez, Iván y Fabrice Lehoucq. Urnas de lo inesperado: fraude electoral y lucha política en Costa Rica (1901-1948). San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 1999.
- Capítulo de libro
Nota al pie de página:
Victoria González, «Memorias de la dictadura: narrativas de las mujeres somocistas y neo-somocistas (1936-2000)», en Mujeres, género e historia en América Central durante los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX, ed. por Eugenia Rodríguez Sáenz (San José, Costa Rica: UNIFEM, Oficina Regional de México, Centroamérica, Cuba y República Dominicana; Plumsock Mesoamerican Studies; Varitec, 2002), 118.
González, Victoria. «Memorias de la dictadura: narrativas de las mujeres somocistas y neo-somocistas (1936-2000)». En Mujeres, género e historia en América Central durante los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX, editado por Eugenia Rodríguez Sáenz. San José, Costa Rica: UNIFEM, Oficina Regional de México, Centroamérica, Cuba y República Dominicana; Plumsock Mesoamerican Studies; Varitec, 2002.
- Tesis de graduación
Nota al pie de página:
Rosa Torras, Conformación de un municipio marginal guatemalteco: tierra, trabajo y poder en Colotenango (1825-1947) (Tesis de Maestría en Historia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2004), 117.
Torras, Rosa. Conformación de un municipio marginal guatemalteco: tierra, trabajo y poder en Colotenango (1825-1947). Tesis de Maestría en Historia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2004.
- Ponencias presentadas en congresos
Nota al pie de página:
Jéssica Ramírez Achoy, «Encontrando mi espacio: movilización y vivencias de las mujeres de los sectores urbano-populares de San José, Costa Rica (1950- 1980)» (Ponencia presentada en las Jornadas de Estudios Urbanos, Género y Feminismo de la Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona, España, 3-5 de octubre de 2011).
Ramírez Achoy, Jéssica. «Encontrando mi espacio: movilización y vivencias de las mujeres de los sectores urbano-populares de San José, Costa Rica (1950- 1980)». Ponencia presentada en las Jornadas de Estudios Urbanos, Género y Feminismo de la Universidad Politécnica de Barcelona, España, 3-5 de octubre de 2011.
- Artículo de revista: sin volumen
Nota al pie de página:
Sonia Alda Mejías, «Las revoluciones liberales y su legitimidad: la restauración del orden republicano. El caso centroamericano (1870-1876)», Revista de Historia, n.º 45 (enero-junio 2002): 232, https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/historia/article/view/12395.
Alda Mejías, Sonia. «Las revoluciones liberales y su legitimidad: la restauración del orden republicano. El caso centroamericano (1870-1876)». Revista de Historia, n.º 45 (enero-junio 2002): 229-263. https://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/historia/article/view/12395.
- Artículo de revista: con volumen
Nota al pie de página:
Ronny Viales Hurtado, «El Museo Nacional de Costa Rica y los albores de discurso nacional costarricense (1887-1900)», Vínculos, vol. 21, n.º 1-2 (1995): 101.
Viales Hurtado, Ronny. «El Museo Nacional de Costa Rica y los albores de discurso nacional costarricense (1887-1900)». Vínculos, vol. 21, n.º 1-2 (1995): 99-123.
- Artículo de revista electrónica
Nota al pie de página:
Mauricio Menjívar Ochoa, «De productores de banano y de productores de historia(s): La empresa bananera en la región atlántica costarricense durante el período 1870-1950, en la mirada de la historiografía en Costa Rica (1940-2002)», Istmo. Revista Virtual de Estudios Literarios y Culturales Centroamericanos, n.º 13 (julio-diciembre 2006), http://istmo.denison.edu/n13/articulos/productores.html.
Menjívar Ochoa, Mauricio. «De productores de banano y de productores de historia(s): La empresa bananera en la región atlántica costarricense durante el período 1870-1950, en la mirada de la historiografía en Costa Rica (1940-2002)». Istmo. Revista Virtual de Estudios Literarios y Culturales Centroamericanos, n.º 13 (julio-diciembre 2006). http://istmo.denison.edu/n13/articulos/productores.html.
- Artículo de periódico: sin autor
La Nación, «Hondureños contra la corrupción», 11 de febrero de 2007, 26A.
- Artículo de periódico: con autor
Fernando Durán Ayanegui, «El júbilo y el dolor», La Nación, 11 de febrero de 2007, 30A.
- Artículo de periódico de una base electrónica
“Caldera: los insultos son falta de argumentos”, El Nuevo Diario, 10 de noviembre de 2005, http://impreso.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2005/11/10/nacionales/542.
- Páginas web
Red Latinoamericana de Historia Oral (RELAHO), http://www.relaho.org/.