Political economy of fair trade and development theory: implications in the Costa Rican coffee market (1990-2017)

  • Oscar Ugalde Hernandez Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Relaciones Internacionales, Costa Rica. Doctor en Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Correo electrónico: oscar.ugalde@liu.ed https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8566-7821
Palabras clave: Desarrollo, Dependencia, Teorías, Comercio Justo, Costa Rica, Café

Resumen

Con respecto de sus fundamentos, las iniciativas del comercio justo experimentaron una metamorfosis entre la década de 1940 y finales de la década de 1980.  A través de las escuelas de pensamiento icónicas de la dependencia y del "desarrollo del subdesarrollo", la evolución de la teoría del desarrollo ha formado los principios y supuestos del comercio justo. A pesar de que estas escuelas de pensamiento cuestionan los supuestos de los mercados neoliberales, su intención de cambiar el sistema de comercio mundial y su intercambio desigual fue el resultado de una aplicación limitada de las relaciones sociales de producción en lugar de las relaciones económicas de intercambio.  Estos factores, además del papel declinante del Estado en el desarrollo a finales de la década de 1980, el colapso de la Unión Soviética, y la contrarrevolución neoliberal a inicios de la década de 1990, llevaron al movimiento del comercio justo a redireccionar su enfoque. El resurgimiento de las fuerzas neoliberales a inicios de la década de 1990, llevó a la red del comercio justo (lo que quedó del movimiento originado en la década de 1940) a implementar estrategias amigables con la filosofía de mercado para posicionarse mejor dentro del mercado dominante internacionalmente. A pesar de que la revolución neoliberal llevó al renacimiento de la red de comercio justo, esto no significa que la red haya perdido su sentido original de precios justos e intercambio justo, o su lealtad a los países del Sur Global. Su nueva realidad es prometedora, pero su nueva “dependencia” en enfoques amigables con el mercado puede también moldear su raison d’être.

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Biografía del autor/a

Oscar Ugalde Hernandez, Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Relaciones Internacionales, Costa Rica. Doctor en Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Correo electrónico: oscar.ugalde@liu.ed
Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Relaciones Internacionales, Costa Rica. Doctor en CienciasEconómicas y Empresariales. Correo electrónico: oscar.ugalde@liu.ed

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Publicado
2019-10-02
Cómo citar
Ugalde Hernandez, O. (2019). Political economy of fair trade and development theory: implications in the Costa Rican coffee market (1990-2017). Relaciones Internacionales, 92(2), 1 - 20. https://doi.org/10.15359/ri.92-2.1