The Acute Effect of Different Types of Stretching on The Height of Jump of Gymnasts: Systematic Review




Gymnastics, Training, Flexibility, Vibration


Objective: This study mainly aimed to analyze the effect of different types of stretching on gymnasts’ jump height.

Methodology: The following databases were consulted: Pubmed and EBSCOhost (SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, E-Journals, Premier Academic Source, International Bibliography of Theater & Dance with Full Text, and PsycARTICLES). The following boolean phrase was used: (stretch OR static stretch OR dynamic stretch OR ballistic stretch OR proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) AND (jumping OR vertical jump OR countermovement jump OR explosive strength OR performance) AND (gymnasts OR gymnastics). The following eligibility criteria were established: to use an experimental, quasi-experimental, or pre-experimental design; to conduct the study on a sample of gymnasts; to explain the methodology clearly; a good description of the stretching method applied.

Results: ten individual studies were included, the total sample among those studies was 226 individuals, and the number of interventions was 16. A 75% of the interventions had a non-significant effect (p> 0.05), while the other 25% had a significant effect (p <0.05 *) on the jump height. The percentage of significant effects corresponds to two increases and two decreases in jump height.

Conclusions: Most interventions show that gymnasts’ jump height is not affected by different types of stretching (only 12.5% of interventions refute this claim); even two interventions showed increases in jumping capacity during a set time.


Annino, G., Iellamo, F., Palazzo, F., Fusco, A., Lombardo, M., Campoli, F., & Padua, E. (2017). Acute changes in neuromuscular activity in vertical jump and flexibility after exposure to whole body vibration. Medicine, 96(33), e7629.

Ayala, F., Sainz de Baranda, P., & Cejudo, A. (2012). El entrenamiento de la flexibilidad: Técnicas de estiramiento. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 5(3), 105-112.

Behm, D. G., Button, D. C., & Butt, J. C. (2001). Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology = Revue Canadienne De Physiologie Appliquee, 26(3), 261-272.

Behm, David G., Bambury, A., Cahill, F., & Power, K. (2004). Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(8), 1397-1402.

Behm, David G., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(11), 2633-2651.

Bogdanis, G. C., Donti, O., Tsolakis, C., Smilios, I., & Bishop, D. J. (2017). Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research. mnh.

Campbell, D. Y. Stanley (1963). Diseños experimentales y cuasiexperimentales en la investigación. Editorial Trillas.

Christensen, B. K., & Nordstrom, B. J. (2008). The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and dynamic stretching techniques on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1826-1831.

Colson, S. S., Petit, P.-D., Hébreard, L., Tessaro, J., & Pensini, M. (2009). Whole body vibration does not enhance muscle activation. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(12), 841-844.

Cramer, J. T., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Miller, J. M., Coburn, J. W., & Beck, T. W. (2004). Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque in women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(2), 236-241.

Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P., & Mellos, V. (2014). The Acute Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training Oh Flexibility and Explosive Strength of Young Gymnasts. Biology of Sport, 31(3), 233-237.

D’anna, C., & Paloma, F. G. (2015). Dynamic stretching versus static stretching in gymnastic performance. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 10, S437-S446.

Di Cagno, A., Baldari, C., Battaglia, C., Gallotta, M. C., Videira, M., Piazza, M., & Guidevtti, L. (2010). Preexercise Static Stretching Effect on Leaping Performance in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 24(8), 1995-2000.

Donti, O., Tsolakis, C., & Bogdanis, G. C. (2014). Effects of Baseline Levels of Flexibility and Vertical Jump Ability on Performance Following Different Volumes of Static Stretching and Potentiating Exercises in Elite Gymnasts. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 13(1), 105-113. ofs.

Ettema, G. J., & Huijing, P. A. (1994). Skeletal muscle stiffness in static and dynamic contractions. Journal of Biomechanics, 27(11), 1361-1368.

Fletcher, I. M., & Jones, B. (2004). The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(4), 885-888.

Gerodimos, V., Zafeiridis, A., Karatrantou, K., Vasilopoulou, T., Chanou, K., & Pispirikou, E. (2010). The acute effects of different whole-body vibration amplitudes and frequencies on flexibility and vertical jumping performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(4), 438-443.

Harper, E. N. (2011). The Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Competitive Gymnasts’ Split Jump Performance [Tesis de maestría]. Department of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University Oxford, OH.

Herda, T. J., Cramer, J. T., Ryan, E. D., McHugh, M. P., & Stout, J. R. (2008). Acute effects of static versus dynamic stretching on isometric peak torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography of the biceps femoris muscle. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(3), 809-817.

Holt, B. W., & Lambourne, K. (2008). The impact of different warm-up protocols on vertical jump performance in male collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(1), 226-229.

Hough, P. A., Ross, E. Z., & Howatson, G. (2009). Effects of Dynamic and Static Stretching on Vertical Jump Performance and Electromyographic Activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(2), 507.

Johnson, A. W., Warcup, C. N., Seeley, M. K., Eggett, D., & Feland, J. B. (2019). The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 59(2), 210-216.

Junior, N. K. M. (2014). Acute effects od dynamic stretching on vertical jump: A systematic review and meta-analysis / Efeito agudo do alongamento dinâmico no salto vertical: uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise. RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia Do Exercício, 8(50).

Kinser, A. M., Ramsey, M. W., O’Bryant, H. S., Ayres, C. A., Sands, W. A., & Stone, M. H. (2008). Vibration and Stretching Effects on Flexibility and Explosive Strength in Young Gymnasts. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(1), 133-140. a9h.

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J., & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration. PLOS Medicine, 6(7), e1000100.

Magnusson, P., & Renström, P. (2006). The European College of Sports Sciences Position statement: The role of stretching exercises in sports. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(2), 87-91.

Magnusson, S. P., Aagard, P., Simonsen, E., & Bojsen-Møller, F. (1998). A Biomechanical Evaluation of Cyclic and Static Stretch in Human Skeletal Muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(5), 310-316.

Magnusson, S. P., Simonsen, E. B., Aagaard, P., Gleim, G. W., McHugh, M. P., & Kjaer, M. (1995). Viscoelastic response to repeated static stretching in the human hamstring muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 5(6), 342-347.

Magnusson, S. P., Simonsen, E. B., Aagaard, P., Sørensen, H., & Kjaer, M. (1996). A mechanism for altered flexibility in human skeletal muscle. The Journal of Physiology, 497(Pt 1), 291-298.

Özengin, N., Ü Y;ıld;ır;ım, N., Baltac;ı, G., & Masiulis, N. (2011). Acute Effects of Different Stretching Durations on Vertical Jump Performance in Rhythmic Gymnasts. / Greitoji Adaptacija Prie Meninės Gimnastikos Vertikalių Šuolių Atliekant Skirtingos Trukmės Tempimo Pratimus. Education. Physical Training. Sport, 83(4), 16-22.

Papia, K., Bogdanis, G. C., Toubekis, A., Donti, A., & Donti, O. (2018). Acute Effects of Prolonged Static Stretching on Jumping Performance and Range of Motion in Young Female Gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 10(2), 217-226.

Pearce, A. J., Kidgell, D. J., Zois, J., & Carlson, J. S. (2009). Effects of secondary warm up following stretching. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(2), 175-183.

Perez-Gomez, J., & Calbet, J. a. L. (2013). Training methods to improve vertical jump performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 53(4), 339-357.

Samuel, M. N., Holcomb, W. R., Guadagnoli, M. A., Rubley, M. D., & Wallmann, H. (2008). Acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on measures of strength and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1422-1428.

Sands, W. A., McNeal, J. R., Stone, M. H., Kimmel, W. L., Haff, G. G., & Jemni, M. (2008). The effect of vibration on active and passive range of motion in elite female synchronized swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(4), 217-223.

Silva, G. F., Almeida, A. R., Rodrigues, S. A., Szmuchrowski, L. A., da Silva, R. A. D., & Drummond, M. D. M. (2018). The Acute Effect of a Sport-Specific Stretching Routine on the Performance of Vertical Jumps in Rhythmic Gymnasts. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 21(2), 30-39. s3h.

Thomas, J. R., & Nelson, J. K. (2007). Métodos de investigación en actividad física. Human Kinetics.

Torres, E. M., Kraemer, W. J., Vingren, J. L., Volek, J. S., Hatfield, D. L., Spiering, B. A., Ho, J. Y., Fragala, M. S.,

Thomas, G. A., Anderson, J. M., Häkkinen, K., & Maresh, C. M. (2008). Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1279-1285.

Trajano, G. S., Nosaka, K., B. Seitz, L., & Blazevich, A. J. (2014). Intermittent Stretch Reduces Force and Central Drive more than Continuous Stretch. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(5), 902.

Trajano, G. S., Seitz, L., Nosaka, K., & Blazevich, A. J. (2013). Contribution of central vs. Peripheral factors to the force loss induced by passive stretch of the human plantar flexors. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(2), 212-218.

Wolfe, A. E., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., Kersey, R. D., & Bottaro, M. (2011). Time Course of the Effects of Static Stretching on Cycling Economy. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(11), 2980.

Young, W. B., & Behm, D. G. (2002). Should Static Stretching Be Used During a Warm-Up for Strength and Power Activities? Strength & Conditioning Journal, 24(6), 33.



How to Cite

Ulloa Sánchez, P. (2020). The Acute Effect of Different Types of Stretching on The Height of Jump of Gymnasts: Systematic Review. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 17(2), 1-20.

How to Cite

Ulloa Sánchez, P. (2020). The Acute Effect of Different Types of Stretching on The Height of Jump of Gymnasts: Systematic Review. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 17(2), 1-20.

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)