Post-exercise rehydration with coconut water: as effective as a sports drink, or better?
AbstractObjective: To compare the effectiveness of fresh coconut water as a rehydration beverage with bottled water and a sports drink.
Method: eleven participants, 22.0±1.9 years of age and 65.6±13.0 kg body mass (average ± S.D.), reported to the laboratory on three separate occasions, each one week apart. Each time they exercised in the heat until they were dehydrated by 1.84 ± 0.2% of initial body mass. They were then rehydrated for one hour with commercial bottled water (BW), a sports drink (SD), or coconut water (CW), using a volume equivalent to 120% of weight loss. Perceived beverage acceptance and tolerance ratings were evaluated, and urine was collected over three hours following rehydration. Results: Urine volumes showed an interaction between beverage and time (p=0.003); BW was statistically different from CW and SD, 30 and 60 minutes after rehydration (p<0.05). Total urine volume was higher for BW (625 ± 183 mL) compared with both CW and SD (390 ± 73 mL and 416 ± 200 mL, respectively, p<0.002); CW and SD were not different from each other (p>0.05). This resulted in a different fluid conservation percentage for BW (56%) compared with CW (71%) and SD (71%) (p<0.001). Perceived tolerance ratings showed no interaction between beverage and time (p>0.05).
Perceived sweetness was lower for BW (p= 0.024); SD had higher scores for flavor and overall acceptance (p<0.05). Conclusions: fresh coconut water is as effective as a sports drink in terms of fluid retained following consumption, and it has good tolerance and acceptance; it could be used for rehydration provided it is accessible to the individual and the person finds the flavor pleasing.
Aragón-Vargas, L. F. & Madriz-Dávila, K. (2000). Incomplete warm-climate, post-exercise rehydration with water, coconut water, or a sports drink. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5s), 238.
Campbell-Falck. D., Thomas, T., Falck, T. M., Tutuo, N., & Clem, K. (2000). The intravenous use of coconut water. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 108-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-6757(00)90062-7
Casa, D. J., Clarkson, P. M., & Roberts, W. O. (2005). American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Hydration and Physical Activity: Consensus Statements. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 4(3), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306194.67241.76
Child, R., & Nathanael, W. (1950). Changes in the sugar composition of coconut water during maturation and germination. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1(11), 326–329. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740011104
Costill, D. L., & Sparks, K. E. (1973). Rapid fluid replacement after thermal dehydratation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 34, 299-303.
Eiseman, B. (1954). Intravenous infusion of coconut water. AMA Archive of Surgery, 68, 167-78. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1954.01260050169005
Gellish, R. L., Goslin, B. R., Olson, R. E., McDonald, A., Russi, G. D., & Moudgil, V. K. (2007). Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Age and Maximal Heart Rate. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(5), 822–829. https://doi.org/10.1097/mss.0b013e31803349c6
González-Alonso, J., Heaps, C. L. & Coyle, E. F. (1992). Rehydration after Exercise with Common Beverages and Water. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(5), 399-406.https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021288
Iqbal, Q. (1976). Direct infusion of coconut water. Medical Journal Malaysia, 30(3), 221-223.
Ismail, I., Singh, R., & Sirisinghe, R.G. (2007). Rehydration with sodium-enriched coconut water after exercise-induced dehydration. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 38(4), 769–785.
Kuberski, T., Roberts, A., Linehan, B., Bryden, R. N., & Teburae, M. (1979). Coconut water as a rehydration fluid. New Zealand Medical Journal, 90, 98-100.
Madriz-Dávila, K. (2000). Comparación en la conservación de líquido producida por tres bebidas distintas: agua pura, bebida deportiva y agua de coco, bajo condiciones de deshidratación. Universidad de Costa Rica, Tesis sin publicar (Magister Scientiae). SIBDI: TFG: 19915.
Maughan, R. J., & Leiper, J.B. (1995). Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 71(4), 311-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00240410
Maughan, R. J., Leiper, J. B., & Shirreffs, S. M. (1997). Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(3), 175-182. doi:10.1136/bjsm.31.3.175. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.31.3.175
Maughan, R. J., Owen, J. H., Shirreffs, S. M., & Leiper, J. B. (1994). Post-Exercise Rehydration In Man: Effects of electrolyte addition to Ingested fluids. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 69, 209-215. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01094790
Merson, S. J., Maughan, R. J., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2008). Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(5), 585–594. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0748-0
Meyer, F., Bar-Or, O., Salsberg, A,. & Passe, D. (1994). Hypohydration during exercise in children: effect on thirst, drink preferences & rehydration. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 4(1), 22–35. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.4.1.22
Mitchell, J. B., Phillips, M. D., Mercer, S. P., Baylies, H. L,. & Pizza, F.X. (2000). Postexercise rehydration: effect of Na+ and volume on restoration of fluid spaces and cardiovascular function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 1302–1309.
Morton, D. P., Aragón-Vargas, L. F., & Callister, R. (2004). Effect of ingested fluid composition on exercise-related transient abdominal pain. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14(2), 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.14.2.197
Mudambo, S.M. & Reynolds, N. (2001). Body fluid shifts in soldiers after a jogging/walking exercise in the heat: effects of water and electrolyte solution on rehydration. The Central African Journal of Medicine, 47(9-10), 220–225. https://doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v47i9.8620
Nadel, E. R., Mack, G. W., & Nose, H. (1990). Influence of fluid replacement beverages on body fluid homeostasis during exercise and recovery. In: Lamb, D.R. & Gisolfi, C.V., eds. Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Fluid Homeostasis During Exercise. Carmel: Benchmark Press, 3, 181-205.
Passe, D. H, Stofan, J. R, Rowe, C. L, Horswill, C.A., & Murray, R. (2009). Exercise condition affects hedonic responses to sodium in a sport drink. Apetite, 52(3), 561-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.01.008
Rivera-Brown, A. M., Gutiérrez, R., Gutiérrez, J. C., Frontera, W. R., & Bar-Or, O. (1999). Drink composition, voluntary drinking, and fluid balance in exercising, trained, heat-acclimatized boys. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(1), 78–84.
Rolle, R. S. (2007). Good Practice for the Small-scale Production on Bottled Coconut Water. Agricultural and Food Engineering Training and Resource Materials. [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-FAO]. Recuperado de http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1418e/a1418e00.htm, el 20/03/2010.
Saat, M., Singh, R., Sirisinghe, R. G., & Nawawi, M. (2002). Rehydration after Exercise with Fresh Young Coconut Water, Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage and Plain Water. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 21(2), 93–104. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.21.93
Sawka, M., Burke, L., Eichner, R., Maughan, R., Montain, S., & Stachenfeld, N. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 377-390. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597
Shafiee, M. A., Charest, A. F., Cheema-Dhadli, S., Glick, D. N., Napolova, O., Roozbeh, J.,…Halperin, M. L. (2005). Defining conditions that lead to the retention of water: The importance of the arterial sodium concentration. Kidney International, 67(2), 613–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.67117.x
Shirreffs, S.M., Armstrong, L.E., & Cheuvront, S.N. (2004). Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140572
Shirreffs, S. M., & Maughan, R. J. (1997). Restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration: effects of alcohol consumption. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(4), 1152-1158.
Shirreffs, S.M., & Maughan, R.J. (1998). Volumen repletion following exercise-induced volume depletion in man: replacement of water and sodium losses. American Journal of Physiology, 274(5), 868-875.
Soto-Pradera, E., Fernández, E., & Calderin, O. (1942). Coconut water: A clinical and experimental study. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 64(6), 977–995. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1942.02010120017002
Vigliar, R., Sdepanian, V., & Fagundes-Neto, U. (2006). Biochemical profile of coconut water from coconut palms planted in an inland region. Journal de Pediatría, 82(4), 308-12. https://doi.org/10.2223/JPED.1508
World Health Organization. (2006). Oral rehydration salts production of the new ORS. Geneva, Switzerland. Pages: 123 [http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_FCH_CAH_06.1.pdf ]. Recuperado el 15/05/2010.
Yawata, T. (1990). Effect of potassium solution on rehydration in rats: comparison with sodium solution and water. The Japanese Journal of Physiology, 40(3), 369-381. https://doi.org/10.2170/jjphysiol.40.369
Self-archiving policy: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet. More information in the following link: https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/25815https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/25815
The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.
The editorial source must be recognized.
MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica license.