Factors associated with the blood lipid profile of patients in the Montes de Oca health service area in Costa Rica
AbstractThis study is aimed at analyzing the association between alterations in the blood lipid profile (dyslipidemia) and the exposure to socioeconomic, biotype and pathological conditions in patients in the Montes de Oca Health Service Area. A case-control study was conducted with a total of 135 cases and 135 controls that were between 20 and 65 years of age and were tested in 2006 for a blood lipid profile. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, body mass index, insurance type and presence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus or both chronic pathologies simultaneously. A univariate analysis was followed by a multivariate analysis using a multiple logistic model. The only variable associated with dyslipidemia was body mass index in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. The rest of the variables showed no statistical association. Patients with higher body mass index exhibit a higher risk of an altered blood lipid profile.
Adult Treatment Panel III. (2001). Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(19), 2486–2497. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
Bakris, G. L. (2007). Current Perspectives on Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 13(5), S3-S5. https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2007.13.s5.3
Betteridge, J. (2005). Benefits of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Americam Journal of Medicine, 118(12A), 10S–15S. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.09.013
Collins, R., Armitage, J., Parish, S., Sleight, P., & Peto, R. (2002). Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 360(9326), 7–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09327-3
Egret® for Windows®. Versión 2.0.31. Cytel Software Corporation. 1999
Freeman, D.H. (1987). Applied categorical data analysis. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Grundy, S.M., Becker. D., Clark, L., Cooper, R.S., Denke, M.A., Howard, W.J., et al. (2002). National cholesterol education program expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Circulation, 106, 3143-3421.
Hallin, R., Koivisto-Hursti, U. K., Lindberg, E., & Janson, C. (2006) Nutritional status, dietary energy intake and the risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiratory Medicine, 100, 561-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2005.05.020
Harrell, F., Lee, K.L., Matchar, D.B., & Reichert, T.A. (1985). Regression models for prognostic prediction: Advantages, problems and suggested solutions. Cancer Treatment Reports, 69(10), 1071-1077.
Jafar, T. H., Qadri, Z., & Chaturvedi, N. (2008). Coronary artery disease epidemic in Pakistan – more electrocardiographic evidence of ischemia in women than in men. Heart, 94(4), 408-413. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2007.120774
Kathiresan, S., Manning, A. K., Demissie, S., D'Agostino, R., Surti, A., Guiducci, C.,…Cupples, L. (2007). A genome-wide association study for blood lipid phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study. BMC Medical Genetics, 8(1), S17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-8-S1-S17
Klein, S., Burke, L. E., Bray, G. A., Blair, S., Allison, D. B., Pi-Sunyer, X.,… American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. (2004). Clinical Implications of Obesity with Specific Focus on Cardiovascular Disease: A Statement for Professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation, 110(18), 2952-2967. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000145546.97738.1E
Kleinbaum, D. G. (1994). Logistic Regression. United States of America: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4108-7
Koloszár, S., Fejes, I., Závaczki, Z., Daru, J., Szöllosi, J., & Pál, A. (2005). Effect of body weight on sperm concentration in normozoospermic males. Archives of Andrology, 51(4), 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/01485010590919701
Law, M.R., Wald, N.J., y Thompson, S.G. (1994). By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ, 308, 367–372. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6925.367
Mantakas, A., & Farrell, T. (2010). The influence of increasing BMI in nulliparous women on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reprodutive Biology, 153(1), 43-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2010.06.021
Meigs, J. B., Wilson, P., Fox, C. S., Vasan, R. S., Nathan, D. M., Sullivan, L. M., & D’Agostino, R.B. (2006). Body Mass Index, Metabolic Syndrome, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(8), 2906–2912. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-0594
Organización Panamericana de la Salud. (2005). Situación de salud en las Américas. Indicadores básicos. Fuente: http://new.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2009/IB_SPA_2009.pdf
Perduzzi, P., Concato, J., Kemper, E., Holford , T.R. & Feinstein, A.R. (1996). A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(12), 1373-1379. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00236-3
Pilote, L., Dasgupta, K., Guru, V., Humphries, K. H., McGrath, J., Norris, C.,…Tagalakis, V. (2007). A comprehensive view of sex-specific issues related to cardiovascular disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 176(6), S1 - S44. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051455
Poirier, P., Giles, T. D., Bray, G.A., Hong, Y., Stern, J. S., Pi-Sunyer, F. X., & Eckel, R. H. (2006). Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Effect of Weight Loss. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 26(5), 968-976. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000216787.85457.f3
Renault, K., Nørgaard, K., Andreasen, K.R., Secher, N. J., & Nilas, L. (2010). Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(7), 956-961. https://doi.org/10.3109/00016341003792459
Resnick, H. E., Harris, M. I., Brock, D. B., & Harris, T. B. (2000) American Diabetes Association diabetes diagnostic criteria, advancing age, and cardiovascular disease risk profiles: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care, 23(2), 176-180. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.2.176
Rothman, K.J. (1986). Moderm epidemiology. United States of America: Little, Brown & Co.
Shepherd, J., Blauw, G.J., Murphy, M.B., Bollen, E., Buckley, B.M., Cobbe, S.M…. Westendorp R.G. (2002). Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 360(9346), 1623–1630. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11600-X
Tacsan, L. y Asencio, M. (2003). Encuesta basal de factores de riesgo para enfermedades no transmisibles, Cartago 2001. Ministerio de Salud Pública de Costa Rica.
Ueshima, H., Kasagi, F., Kodama, K., Okamura, T., Hayakawa, T., Okayama, A… The Nippon Data 80 Research Group. (2006). Risk assessment chart for death from cardiovascular disease based on a 19-year follow-up study of a Japanese representative population. Circulation Journal, 70(10), 1249–1255. https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.70.1249
United States Department of Health and Human Services (2004). Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). Rockville, Md. Publication No. 04-5230.
Watkins, P. (2003). ABC of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and lipids. BMJ, 326, 874-876. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7394.874
World Health Organization (1995). Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 854, 1-452.
Self-archiving policy: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet. More information in the following link: http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/1659-097X/
The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.
The editorial source must be recognized.
MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica license.