Influence of Altitude and Environmental Temperature on Muscle Functional and Mechanical Activation After 30' Time Trial Run




muscles, running, altitude, temperature, tensiomyography


The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of altitude and environmental temperature on muscle mechanical and functional activation after 30' Time Trial run (30' TT). Twenty physical active males (Age= 20.4 ±3.21 years, VO2max= 47.2 ±5.2 ml/kg/min) performed a 30' TT in three different conditions of altitude and temperature: Control Condition [CC] (1137 m.a.s.l. at 26 ±1.5°C), Heat-Low Condition [HLC] (3 m.a.s.l. at 30.5 ±0.6°C), and Cool-High Condition [CHC] (2369 m.a.s.l. at 14.2 ±0.6°C). Tensiomyography (TMG), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post running. During the 30' TT, distance, speed, heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal index (WBGT) were measured. Results show a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in DOMS and jump height in CMJ after running in each condition. TMG responses increased maximum radial muscle displacement (Dm) and decreased muscle contraction time (Tc) both rectus and biceps femoris muscles after running. During the 30' TT, the results did not show a significant difference in RPE, HR, distance, and speed among conditions. In conclusion, altitude and temperature seem not to significantly affect the mechanical and functional responses 30' TT, despite the tendency of HLC to decrease both activation and performance.

Author Biographies

Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Universidad Nacional

Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida

Jose Alexis Ugalde Ramírez, Universidad Nacional

, Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida

Braulio Sánchez-Ureña, Universidad Nacional

Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida

Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas, Universidad Nacional

Escuela Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida


Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Glaister, M., & Lockey, R.A. (2015). The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance. Journal of Sports Science, 33(15), 1574-1579. Doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.996184

Benítez Jiménez, A., Fernández Roldán, K., Montero Doblas, J. M., & Romacho Castro, J. A. (2013). Reliability of tensiomiography (TMG) as a muscle assessment tool. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte, 13(52), 647-656.

Bevan, H. R., Cunningham, D. J., Tooley, E. P., Owen, N. J., Cook, C. J., & Kilduff, L. P. (2010). Influence of postactivation potentiation on sprinting performance in professional rugby players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(3), 701-705. Doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c7b68a

Boullosa, D. A., Tuimil, J. L. (2009). Postactivation potentiation in distance runners after two different field running protocols. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(5), 1560-1565. Doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a3ce61

Carrol, T.J., Taylor, J.L., & Gandevia. (2017). Recovery of central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(5): 1068-76.

Chatzopoulos, D. E., Michailidis, C. J., Giannakos, A. K., Alexiou, K. C., Patikas, D. A., Antonopoulos, C. B., &

Kotzamanidis, C. M. (2007). Postactivation potentiation effects after heavy resistance exercise on running speed. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(4), 1278-1281. Doi:10.1519/R-21276.1

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Routledge Academic.

de Paula Simola, R. Á., Harms, N., Raeder, C., Kellmann, M., Meyer, T., Pfeiffer, M., & Ferrauti, A. (2015). Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1339-1348. Doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000768

Degens, H., Horneros, J. M. S., & Hopman, M. T. (2006). Acute hypoxia limits endurance but does not affect muscle contractile properties. Muscle & Nerve, 33(4), 531-537.

Delagi, E., Lazzetti, J., Perotto, A., & Morrison, D. (2011). Anatomical Guide For The Electromyographer The Limbs and Trunk (Fifth Ed). Ilinois, United States of America: Charles C Thomas Publisher LTD.

DeRenne, C. (2010). Effects of postactivation potentiation warm-up in male and female sport performances: A brief review. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 32(6), 58-64. Doi:10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181f412c4

Esformes, J. I., Cameron, N., & Bampouras, T. M. (2010). Postactivation potentiation following different modes of exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(7), 1911-1916. Doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181dc47f8

Felici, F., Rosponi, A., Sbriccoli, P., Scarcia, M., Bazzucchi, I., & Iannattone, M. (2001), Effect of human exposure to altitude on muscle endurance during isometric contractions. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(6), 507-512. Doi:10.1007/s004210100488

Feriche, B., García-Ramos, A., Calderón-Soto, C., Drobnic, F., Bonitch- Góngora, J. G., Galilea, P. A.,… & Padial, P. (2014). Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia. PLoS One, 9(12), e114072.

García-García, O., Mendo, A. H., Gómez, V. S., & Morales-Sánchez, V. (2013). Aplicación de la teoría de la generalizabilidad a un análisis de tensiomiografía en ciclistas profesionales de ruta. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 22(1), 53-60.

García-Manso, J. M., Rodríguez-Ruiz, D., Rodríguez-Matoso, D., de Saa, Y., Sarmiento, S., & Quiroga, M. (2011). Assessment of muscle fatigue after an ultra-endurance triathlon using tensiomyography (TMG). Journal of Sports Science, 29(6), 619-625.

Geiser, J., Vogt, M., Billeter, R., Zuleger, C., Belforti, F., & Hoppeler, H. (2001). Training high-living low: changes of aerobic performance and muscle structure with training at simulated altitude. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(08), 579-585. Doi:10.1055/s-2001-18521

Gil, S., Loturco, I., Tricoli, V., Ugrinowitsch, C., Kobal, R., Abad C. C., & Roschel, H. (2015). Tensiomyography parameters and jumping and sprinting performance in Brazilian elite soccer players. Sports Biomechanics; 14(3), 340-50.

Gołaś, A., Maszczyk, A., Zajac, A., Mikołajec, K., & Stastny, P. (2016). Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports. Journal of Human Kinetic, 52(1), 95-106. Doi:10.1515/hukin-2015-0197

Gouvêa, A. L., Fernandes, I. A., César, E. P., Silva, W. A. B., & Gomes, P. S. C. (2013). The effects of rest intervals on jumping performance: A meta-analysis on post-activation potentiation studies. Journal of Sports Science, 31(5), 459-467.

Gulick, D. T., Kimura, I. F., Sitler, M., Paolone, A., & Kelly I.V, J. D. (1996). Various treatment techniques on signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. Journal of Athletic Training, 31(2), 145.

Gutiérrez-Vargas, R., Martín-Rodríguez, S., Sánchez-Ureña, B., Rodríguez-Montero, A., Salas-Cabrera, J., Gutiérrez-Vargas, JC., Šimunič, B. & Rojas-Valverde, D. (2018). Biochemical and muscle mechanical post-marathon changes in hot and humid conditions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002746

Hamlin, M.J., Hopkins, W.G., & Hollings, S.C. (2015). Effects of altitude on performance of elite track-and-field athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology Performance, 10(7), 881-887.

Johnston, R. J., Watsford, M. L., Kelly, S. J., Pine, M. J., & Spurrs, R. W. (2014). Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(6), 1649-1655. Doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000323

Lewis, P. B., Ruby, D., & Bush-Joseph, C. A. (2012). Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 31(2), 255-262. Doi:10.1016/j.csm.2011.09.009

Lorenz, D. (2011). Postactivation potentiation: An introduction. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 6(3), 234-240. PMID: 21904700

Lundby, C., Millet, G. P., Calbet, J. A., Bärtsch, P., & Subudhi, A. W. (2012). Does ‘altitude training’increase exercise performance in elite athletes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(11), 792–795.

Martínez-López EJ. (2004) Aplicación de la prueba de Cooper, Course Navette y test de Ruffier. Resultados y análisis estadístico en Educación Secundaria. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte, 4(15), 163-82.

Mazzeo, R. S. (2008). Physiological responses to exercise at altitude: an update. Physiological Responses to Exercise at Altitude: An Update. Sports Medicine, 38(1), 1-8. Doi:10.2165/00007256-200838010-00001

Mettler, J. A., & Griffin, L. (2012). Postactivation potentiation and muscular endurance training. Musles & Nerve, 45(3), 416–425.

Morales-Artacho, A. J., Padial, P., Rodríguez-Matoso, D., Rodríguez-Ruiz, D., García-Ramos, A., García-Manso, J. M.,…, & Feriche, B. (2015). Assessment of muscle contractile properties at acute moderate altitude through tensiomyography. High Altitude and Medicine Biology, 16(4), 343–349.

Pastor Y, Balaguer I., & García-Merita, M.L. (1999). Estilo de vida y salud. Valencia: Albatros Educación.

Picón-Martínez, M., Chulvi-Medrano, I., Cortell-Tormo, J.M. & Cardozo, L.A. (2019). La potenciación post-activación en el salto vertical: una revisión. Retos, 36: 44-51.

Pino-Ortega, J., Bastida-Castilo, A., Oliva-Lozano, J.M., Rojas-Valverde, D., Reche-Soto, P. & Gómez-Carmona, C. (2019). Comparación de dos métodos de detección para el registro de la frecuencia cardíaca: banda torácica vs

camiseta técnica. Retos: Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 36: 469-73.

Rojas-Valverde, D., Gutiérrez-Vargas, R., Rodríguez-Montero, A., Pereira, L., Loturco, I. & Martín-Rodríguez, S. (2018). Reduced muscle contractile function in elite young soccer players after a short-congested fixture period. Proceedings in Mechanical Engineering; Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology. 233(2). DOI: 10.1177/1754337118817957

Rojas-Valverde, D., Sánchez-García, A., Sáenz-Ulloa, D. & Gutiérrez-Vargas, R. (2019). Osteopathic manipulation improves physical and muscle mechanical function and spinal symmetries in golfers. Revista Kronos: Actividad Física y Deporte, 18(1).

Sánchez-Ureña, B., Rojas-Valverde, D. & Gutiérrez-Vargas R. (2018). Acute immersion protocol is not effective for neuromuscular mechanical function recovery: a tensiomyography study. Frontiers in Physiology, 9 (766).

Schlader ZJ, Stannard SR, & Mundel T. (2009). Exercise and Heat Stress: Performance, Fatigue, and Exhaustion-A HOT Topic. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(1), 1-5. Doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.063024

Seitz, L. B., & Haff, G. G. (2016). Factors modulating post-activation potentiation of jump, sprint, throw, and upper-body ballistic performances: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(2), 231-240. Doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0415-7.

Szubski, C., Burtscher, M., & Löscher, W. N. (2007). Neuromuscular fatigue during sustained contractions performed in short-term hypoxia. Medicine Science of Sports Exercise, 39(6), 948-954. Doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180479918.

Tano, G., Bishop, A., Berning, J., Adams, K. J., & DeBeliso, M. (2016). Post activation potentiation in North American high school football players. Journal of Sports Science, 4(6), 346-352. Doi:10.17265/2332-7839/2016.06.003

Tous-Fajardo, J., Moras, G., Rodríguez-Jiménez, S., Usach, R., Doutres, D. M., & Maffiuletti, N. A. (2010). Inter-rater reliability of muscle contractile property measurements using non-invasive tensiomyography. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20(4), 761-766. htps://

Vanshika S. (2012). Literature review of management of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). International Journal of Biological and Medical Research, 3(1), 1469-1475.

Vuorimaa, T, Virlander, R, Kurkilahti, P, Vasankari, T, & Häkkinen, K. (2006). Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(3), 282–291.

Wilson, J. M., Duncan, N. M., Marin, P. J., Brown, L. E., Loenneke, J. P., Wilson, S. M., ... & Ugrinowitsch, C. (2013). Meta-analysis of postactivation potentiation and power: effects of conditioning activity, volume, gender, rest periods, and training status. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(3), 854-859. Doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2bdb

World Medical Association. (2013). Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association. Ethical principles for medical research in humans. 64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil (Online). (Consulted 2018 Oct 20). Available from:

Xenofondos, A., Laparidis, K., Kyranoudis, A., Galazoulas, C., Bassa, E., & Kotzamanidis, C. (2010). Post-activation potentiation: Factors affecting it and the effect on performance. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 28(3), 32-38.



How to Cite

Rojas-Valverde, D., Ugalde Ramírez, J. A., Sánchez-Ureña, B., & Gutiérrez-Vargas, R. (2019). Influence of Altitude and Environmental Temperature on Muscle Functional and Mechanical Activation After 30’ Time Trial Run. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 17(1), 1-15.

How to Cite

Rojas-Valverde, D., Ugalde Ramírez, J. A., Sánchez-Ureña, B., & Gutiérrez-Vargas, R. (2019). Influence of Altitude and Environmental Temperature on Muscle Functional and Mechanical Activation After 30’ Time Trial Run. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 17(1), 1-15.

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>