Absence of Reliable Screening Methods That Prove the Use of Gene Doping in Sports

Keywords: athletes, physical performance, gene doping, gene doping detection, genetic markers, World Anti-Doping Agency


Sport raises the level of human physical activity within the limits of genetic traits. The results of gene therapy have attracted some to think of using its technologies to create an “indomitable athlete.” World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) applies uncertain genetic testing procedures to establish cases of this type of doping. Yet, if the results of these procedures are doubtful, then doubt must be interpreted in favor of the athlete concerned.


Ahmad, A. S. (2012). Criminal Responsibility of Taking Physical Steroids in Sports and Its Effects in Jordanian and Iraqi Law: (A Comparative Study) [Middle East University]. https://meu.edu.jo/libraryTheses/58d7708cc3ea2_1.pdf

AL-Dafrawi, A. S. A. (2018). Taking Physical Steroids in Sport Competitions: (From an Ethical-Legal Perspective). Journal of Political Science and Law, 2(9), 188–206.

AL-Dafrawi, A. S. A., Abdullah, M. A., Zawawi, M., & Ismail, Z. (2019). Taking steroids in the sports field: (Islamic and Conventional Law perspective). International Journal of Muslim World Studies, 17(1), 318–355.

de Boer, E. N., van der Wouden, P. E., Johansson, L. F., van Diemen, C. C., & Haisma, H. J. (2019). A next-generation sequencing method for gene doping detection that distinguishes low levels of plasmid DNA against a background of genomic DNA. Gene Therapy, 26(7), 338–346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-019-0091-6

Dias, R. G. (2011). Genetics, human physical performance and gene doping: The common sense versus the scientific reality. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 17(1), 62–70. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922011000100012

Ginevičienė, V., Utkus, A., Pranckevičienė, E., Semenova, E. A., Hall, E. C. R., & Ahmetov, I. I. (2022). Perspectives in Sports Genomics. Biomedicines, 10(2), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020298

Good, A. (2016). “The Benefit of the Doubt” in British Asylum Claims and International Cricket. In D. Berti, A.

Good, & G. Tarabout (Eds.), Of Doubt and Proof: Ritual and Legal Practices of Judgment (1st ed., pp. 119–140). Routledge.

Patel, S., & Varley, I. (2019). Exploring the Regulation of Genetic Testing in Sport. Entertainment and Sports Law Journal, 17(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.16997/eslj.223

Shen, W., & Liang, X. (2021). PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN THE PROMOTION OF GENE THERAPY AUXILIARY EFFECT. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 27, 779–782. https://doi.org/10.1590/1517-8692202127082021_0360

World Anti-Doping Agency. (2021). World Anti-Doping Code 2021. https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/2021_code.pdf

How to Cite
AL-Dafrawi, A. (2023). Absence of Reliable Screening Methods That Prove the Use of Gene Doping in Sports. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 20(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.20-1.14

Comentarios (ver términos de uso)